2009.06.25 03:50 TealList /r/Diesel: For Diesel Enthusiasts
2008.11.14 15:12 piercing
2023.06.08 22:36 PepperNK Topical melatonin/cetirizine instructions
• A 2-ounce dropper bottle • A sealable glass container for dissolving tablets • A glass vessel for gathering the filtered solution • Coffee filters • Melatonin tablets (6-10mg) • Cetirizine (Zyrtec) tablets (6-10mg) • 70% ethyl alcohol • Propylene glycolProcedure:
1. Start by pouring approximately 35ml of ethyl alcohol into a glass or metal container. An extra dropper bottle would work fine for this. 2. Crush your melatonin and cetirizine tablets into a fine powder, and add this into the container with the ethyl alcohol. 3. Securely close the container to prevent the alcohol from evaporating, which could alter your final concentration. 4. Shake the container vigorously to help dissolve the tablet powder into the alcohol. Leave the solution to sit for about an hour, then give it another good shake. Continue this process for about 4-5 hours to ensure everything is thoroughly dissolved. 5. Next, you’ll need to filter the solution. Using a coffee filter, slowly pour the solution into an empty, clean glass container. This step helps remove any remaining tablet particulates. 6. Discard the coffee filter and any leftover residue. The solution might look different based on the tablets used. It could be clear or slightly milky. 7. Carefully pour the filtered solution into the clean, empty 2oz dropper bottle. It should fill just over half of the bottle. 8. Now, measure out 24ml of propylene glycol and add this to the solution in the dropper bottle. If measured correctly, it should nearly fill the bottle, but you can add a bit more until it reaches the top.Usage and Storage:
• Your solution is now ready. It should last for about a month or even longer. To extend its shelf life, store it in a cool, dark place, preferably the refrigerator. • Apply the solution to your scalp, focusing on the areas experiencing hair loss, or you can spread it all over. It’s recommended to use it twice a day. • Shake the bottle before each application. If you’re applying to multiple areas, remember to shake the bottle between applications. • Some people reported decreased hair shedding within 3 days of usage. • If you wish, you can add other beneficial ingredients like resveratrol or various oils, but keep in mind this could affect the measurements.Always remember to do a patch test before applying any new product on your scalp, and consult your doctor if you have any doubts or concerns.
2023.06.08 21:38 gigi2498 2014 Ford Focus SE - No Start
2023.06.08 20:59 Redfox_Entertainment I bought a used car from a dealership and it blew up 2 days later and they are not keen on refunding me and rather want ro swap the engine?
2023.06.08 16:45 eviloverlord999 2016 1L Ecoboost fuel economy
2023.06.08 15:09 killjoyqween 2013 Ford Focus SE Hatchback
2023.06.08 13:56 albertacashforcars best junk car removal calgary
submitted by albertacashforcars to u/albertacashforcars [link] [comments]
What is junk car removalJunk car removal is a service that involves the removal of abandoned, damaged or non-functional vehicles from private and public spaces. It is an essential service that helps to keep the environment clean by removing potential hazards associated with rusty, old cars. Junk car removal services are usually offered by companies that specialize in buying junk cars for recycling or reselling.
In most cases, junk car removal companies offer free towing services to their customers. This means they will come to your location and tow away your unwanted vehicle at no extra cost. They also buy these cars for cash regardless of their condition; whether it's running or not.
Many people opt for junk car removal services when they have a vehicle that has been sitting idle on their property for years. Some reasons why one may choose this service include:
Environmental concernsOld vehicles can leak hazardous fluids like oil, coolant and brake fluid which can contaminate soil and water sources around them.
Space constraintsUnused vehicles take up valuable space on properties which could be used more productively
Safety issuesAbandoned cars pose safety risks since they attract rodents and other pests while encouraging anti-social behavior such as graffiti tagging
AestheticsJunk automobiles detract from the visual appeal of residential neighborhoods hence lowering property values
Junk car removal companies typically recycle parts of these old wreckages which still hold value while disposing of any hazardous materials in a responsible manner according to environmental regulations set forth by local authorities.
junk car removal CalgaryJunk car removal is a popular service in Calgary, as it offers an easy and hassle-free way to get rid of unwanted or damaged vehicles. There are several companies that specialize in junk car removal services, each offering different benefits and advantages.
One of the best junk car removal calgary is Cash for Junk Cars Calgary. This company has been providing reliable and efficient vehicle removal services for many years. They offer free towing and pay cash on the spot for your junk cars, regardless of their condition.
Another popular option for junk car removal in Calgary is Pick-n-Pull. This company has multiple locations across Canada, including one in Calgary. Their experienced team can quickly evaluate your vehicle's value based on its make, model, year, mileage, and condition. They also offer environmentally friendly disposal methods that ensure all hazardous materials are disposed of safely.
A-1 Parts For Less Ltd is another top contender for the best junk car removal calgary service provider in Calgary. This company buys all types of vehicles from cars to trucks to SUVs at competitive prices. A-1 Parts For Less Ltd offers free towing services within 24 hours after receiving a call from you.
When choosing a junk car removal service provider in Calgary or any other city or town with such providers available; there are several factors to consider before making a final decision:
Firstly Consider how long they have been operating - choose an established company with experience
Secondly Look at customer reviews online - check what previous customers say about their experiences working with them
Thirdly Compare pricing quotes offered by different companies – compare quotes from various firms before making a final decision
Fourthly Check if they offer additional incentives like Free Towing Services (which most reputable companies do)
best junk car removal Calgary
Pick-n-PullAs one of the best junk car removal Calgary companies, Pick-n-Pull has built a solid reputation for providing top-notch services. With years of experience in the industry, they have become a trusted and reliable choice for individuals looking to get rid of their unwanted cars. Pick-n-Pull pride itself on providing excellent customer service and convenience. They offer free towing services, making the process easy and convenient for consumers. Pick-n-Pull will buy the car, whether damaged, unusable, or unwanted.
CASH 4 CARS CALGARYCash 4 Cars Calgary has been recognized as one of the best junk car removal Calgary service providers. They have proven to be a reputable and trustworthy business choice due to their experience. Cash 4 Cars Calgary provides an integrated and effective alternative for those who want to sell unwanted cars. They specialize in providing cash for cars in any condition. One of the main benefits of working with Cash 4 Cars Calgary is their dedication to providing great customer service.
Calgary auto recyclingAs one of Calgary’s best junk car removal calgary companies, Calgary Auto Recycling is committed to providing the fairest value for cars, trucks, and vans. They accept regardless of make or model, including popular brands such as Honda, Toyota, Ford, GMC, and Chevrolet. With a focus on minimizing waste, they use an environmentally friendly approach to recycle every vehicle that comes their way. They have also built an extensive network of authorized recycling partners to assist with all recycling needs. Their team ensures that each vehicle is disposed of responsibly, meets environmental standards, and promotes sustainability.
Alberta Cash for CarsAlberta Cash for Cars is one of Calgary’s best junk car removal calgary companies, focused on providing the best possible service to their customers. With over 5 years of business experience, they have earned a reputation for being reliable, efficient, and fair in their customer dealings. They buy all makes and models of vehicles, including cars, trucks, vans, and SUVs, in any condition, make, or model.
conclusionIn conclusion, junk car removal services in Calgary are a convenient and hassle-free way to get rid of unwanted or damaged vehicles. With several companies offering these services, it is important to do some research before selecting a service provider. Factors such as experience, customer reviews, pricing quotes and additional incentives like free towing should be evaluated when making the final decision.
Cash for Junk Cars Calgary, Pick-n-Pull and A-1 Parts For Less Ltd are among the popular options that offer reliable and efficient vehicle removal services in Calgary. These companies have years of experience in providing exceptional service while ensuring environmentally friendly disposal methods.
Overall, if you have an old or damaged vehicle taking up space on your property or posing environmental hazards then consider contacting a reputable junk car removal company in Calgary today. They will provide you with fair prices for your vehicle along with safe handling procedures which ensure proper disposal of hazardous materials while recycling parts that still hold value - all this without any extra cost!
2023.06.08 13:43 country1089 2016 Ford focus Se hatchback
2023.06.08 12:52 Chico237 #NIOCORP~ SCANDIUM OXIDE, GREEN HYDROGEN & BLOOM ENERGY in the news! & more....
submitted by Chico237 to NIOCORP_MINE [link] [comments]
June 7, 2023~Bloom Energy, Perenco to Deploy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in the United Kingdom~Bloom Energy, Perenco to Deploy Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in the United Kingdom Business Wire
The Bloom Energy Server® platform, to be delivered in late 2023, will be installed at Wytch Farm in Dorset, England, the largest onshore oil field in western Europe, where it will be used to support Perenco’s baseload requirements. (Photo: Business Wire)
SAN JOSE, Calif. & LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Bloom Energy (NYSE:BE) has signed an agreement with Perenco to install 2.5 megawatts (MW) of Bloom’s solid oxide fuel cells at a site in England. Perenco is a leading independent hydrocarbon company, producing 500,000 BOE of oil and gas per day from its operations in 14 partner countries.
The Bloom Energy Server® platform, to be delivered in late 2023, will be installed at Wytch Farm in Dorset, England, the largest onshore oil field in western Europe, where it will be used to support Perenco’s baseload requirements. The agreement marks the first deployment of Bloom fuel cell technology in the United Kingdom.
“This is an important step that will demonstrate how our solid oxide fuel cell technology supports the resilience and sustainability goals of our energy-intensive clients,” said Tim Schweikert, Senior Managing Director of International Business Development at Bloom Energy.
“Perenco has always been a pioneer in innovation and long-term investment in the countries where we operate,” said Benoit de la Fouchardiere, Perenco CEO. “Today’s announcement is another important step as we continue to reduce our emissions wherever we work. We look forward to a successful initial deployment at Wytch Farm and to then expanding the use of the technology into other global operations sites.”
The agreement with Perenco is another major step in Bloom’s expansion in Europe, following the recent sales agreement for northern Europe with Elugie, a marketing partnership agreement with Telam for Spain and Portugal, and energy platform sales to Cefla and Ferrari in Italy announced in 2022.
For more information about the Bloom Energy Server, see https://www.bloomenergy.com/technology/.
JUNE 6, 2023 ~Westinghouse and Bloom Energy Sign Letter of Intent to Accelerate Zero-Carbon, Large-Scale Hydrogen Production in the Nuclear Industry~Bloom Energy - Bloom Energy Demonstrates Hydrogen Production with the World’s Largest and Most Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolyzer
CRANBERRY TOWNSHIP, Pa. & SAN JOSE, Calif. – June 6, 2022 – Westinghouse Electric Company and Bloom Energy Corporation (NYSE:BE) today announced that they have entered into a Letter of Intent to pursue clean hydrogen production in the commercial nuclear power market. The companies are teaming to identify and implement clean hydrogen projects across the nuclear industry.
Westinghouse and Bloom Energy will jointly develop an optimized and large-scale high temperature integrated electrolysis solution for the nuclear industry. With the ability to operate 24/7 and provide high-quality steam input, nuclear plants are well-positioned to utilize electrolyzer technology and produce substantial quantities of clean hydrogen with minimal disruption to current, ongoing operations.
“Through this collaboration, we are committed to delivering an economical solution for large-scale hydrogen production in the nuclear industry, which further supports the path to net zero carbon emissions,” said Pam Cowan, Westinghouse President of Americas Operating Plant Services.
“We are proud Westinghouse has turned to Bloom and our solid oxide technology to supercharge the clean hydrogen economy,” said Rick Beuttel, vice president, hydrogen business, Bloom Energy. “Solid oxide technology is well suited for nuclear applications, efficiently harnessing steam to further improve the economics of hydrogen production. High temperature electrolysis is already garnering attention and accolades as a cost-effective and viable solution to create low-cost, clean hydrogen, which is critical to meeting aggressive decarbonization goals.”
Global demand for hydrogen and its emerging applications is projected to increase tenfold or more by 2050, surpassing the current infrastructure for producing and delivering hydrogen. As hydrogen usage expands from traditional industrial uses to the fuel of a clean future, the need to produce it in larger quantities and from low- and zero-carbon sources is clear.
The hydrogen produced in nuclear plants can be utilized to serve many industries such as renewable fuels production, oil and metals refining, ammonia synthesis, mining operations, and mobility in sectors such as heavy trucks, buses, and even air travel. The companies also are well positioned to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s developing hydrogen hubs.
About WestinghouseWestinghouse Electric Company is shaping the future of carbon-free energy by providing safe, innovative nuclear technologies to utilities globally. Westinghouse supplied the world’s first commercial pressurized water reactor in 1957 and the company’s technology is the basis for nearly one-half of the world’s operating nuclear plants. Over 135 years of innovation makes Westinghouse the preferred partner for advanced technologies covering the complete nuclear energy life cycle. For more information, visit www.westinghousenuclear.com and follow us on Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.
About Bloom EnergyBloom Energy empowers businesses and communities to responsibly take charge of their energy. The company’s leading solid oxide platform for distributed generation of electricity and hydrogen is changing the future of energy. Fortune 100 companies around the world turn to Bloom Energy as a trusted partner to deliver lower carbon energy today and a net-zero future. For more information, visit www.bloomenergy.com.
MAY 7, 2023~World’s largest solid oxide electrolyzer begins producing hydrogen~World’s largest solid oxide electrolyzer begins producing hydrogen (hydrogentechworld.com)
Bloom Energy has begun generating hydrogen from the world’s largest solid oxide electrolyzer installation at NASA’s Ames Research Center. This high-temperature unit produces 20–25% more hydrogen per MW than commercially demonstrated lower-temperature electrolyzers such as PEM or alkalinehttps://preview.redd.it/r9j9ub5zur4b1.png?width=1536&format=png&auto=webp&s=8de4ed62233ef7c13a523b704dc0d2708068d3f2
This electrolyzer demonstration showcases the maturity, efficiency and commercial readiness of Bloom’s solid oxide technology for large-scale, clean hydrogen production. The 4 MW Bloom Electrolyzer™, delivering the equivalent of over 2.4 tonnes per day of hydrogen output, was built, installed and operationalized in a span of two months to demonstrate the speed and ease of deployment.
“This demonstration is a major milestone for reaching net-zero goals,” said KR Sridhar, Ph.D., Founder, Chairman and CEO of Bloom Energy. “Hydrogen will be essential for storing intermittent and curtailed energy and for decarbonizing industrial energy use. Commercially viable electrolyzers are the key to unlocking the energy storage puzzle, and solid oxide electrolyzers offer inherently superior technology and economic advantages. Bloom Energy, as the global leader in solid oxide technology, is proud to share this exciting demonstration with the world: our product is ready for prime time.”
The current demonstration expands on Bloom’s recent project on a 100 kW system located at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which achieved record-breaking electrolyzer efficiency. In the ongoing project, 4,500 hours of full load operations have been completed with a Bloom Electrolyzer™, producing hydrogen more efficiently than any other process – over 25% more efficiently than low-temperature electrolysis.
The INL steam and load simulations replicated nuclear power conditions to validate full capability of technology application at nuclear facilities, and the pilot results revealed the Bloom Electrolyzer producing hydrogen at 37.7 kWh per kg of hydrogen. Dynamic testing conducted at INL included ramping down the system from 100 percent of rated power to 5 percent in less than 10 minutes without adverse system impacts. Even at 5 percent of rated load, the energy efficiency (kWh/kg) was as good or better than other electrolyzer technologies at their 100% rated capacity. These results will be presented at the Department of Energy’s Annual Review Meeting in Washington DC on 7 June 2023.
Dr. Ravi Prasher, CTO of Bloom Energy, said: “The amount of electricity needed by the electrolyzer to make hydrogen will be the most dominant factor in determining hydrogen production cost. For this reason, the efficiency of the electrolyzer, the electricity needed to produce a kilogram of hydrogen becomes the most critical figure of merit. This 4 MW demonstration at the NASA Ames Research Center proves that the energy efficiency of our large-scale electrolyzer is similar to the small-scale system tested at INL highlighting the strength of our modular architecture. The electrolyzer product is leveraging the Bloom platform knowhow of more than 1 GW of solid oxide fuel cells deployed in the field and providing approximately 1 trillion cumulative cell operating hours. The same technology platform that can convert natural gas and hydrogen to electricity can be used reversibly to convert electricity to hydrogen. With Bloom’s high-efficiency, high-temperature solid oxide electrolyzers, we are one step closer to a decarbonized future powered by low-cost clean hydrogen.”
April 5, 2022 ~Scandium emerges from the shadows~
Scandium emerges from the shadows - MMTA
Scandium has long been considered an “if” metal. If only it were available in quantity, it could transform aircraft production and fuel consumption. If only it were available in quantity, it could speed the emerging hydrogen economy. If only it were available in quantity, it could accelerate the rollout of 5G technologies. And so on.The view has been that scandium could be used in numerous large-volume applications, if only supplies were sufficient to meet the potential demand. Manufacturers regularly cited a lack of sufficient scandium supply as the reason why they did not roll out new uses and products containing scandium.
After a near-mythic role in the 1980s (as a strengthening agent in aluminium alloys deployed in the last generation of Soviet MiG fighter aircraft and even, reputedly, in ballistic missile nosecones), scandium entered the banal in the 1990s, in sporting goods and, bizarrely, hand guns.
Bloom Energy turned the tide starting around 2010, with its introduction of fuel cells based on scandium-stabilised zirconia ceramic electrolytes. Bloom has grown rapidly and now represents perhaps 80% of the world’s annual consumption of SCANDIUM, a paltry 25t or so of oxide in 2021.
And yet, despite these rickety foundations, SCANDIUM consumption is poised to grow dramatically in the next decade, buoyed by new sources of supply and sustained by demand-side innovation.
The supply sideLet’s start with supply. Until about 2018, most scandium was supplied as a by-product in China and Russia, from uranium and titanium processing. Since then, however, much has changed.
First, Sumitomo Metal Mining built and has now commissioned a scandium recovery circuit at its Tagano Bay nickel high pressure acid leach (HPAL) plant in the Philippines. This plant recovers scandium oxalate for processing into oxide (and probably into scandium-zirconium oxide particles destined for Bloom Energy) in Japan. The plant recovers 7-8tpy of scandium oxide and when commissioned increased global supply by around 40%. Capital costs were perhaps US$5M/t of scandium oxide.
Second, the Chinese integrated titanium producer Lomon Billions has established a 20-30tpy scandium oxide facility with the potential to increase to 50tpy. The company estimates up to 100tpy of scandium oxide are available in its titanium plants using the sulphate process.
Third, in 2021, Rio Tinto commenced scandium recovery from its Sorel Tracy plant in Québec, Canada. The pilot plant can supply 3tpy of scandium oxide and cost US$6M. The site has the ability to supply an estimated 50-60tpy of oxide based on current raw material feed.
Finally, UC Rusal has both commissioned a 3tpy pilot scandium oxide plant, recovering scandium oxide from red mud deposits, and also commenced marketing and selling a range of scandium alloys (branded “ScAlution” alloys) that boast enhanced performance at low (typically 0.1%) concentrations of scandium.
Plus, it is not only Rusal that has pioneered low-scandium alloys. In the USA, Eck Industries, a specialist aluminium casting house, is commercialising cerium-based alloys in which scandium, again at low loadings, could provide additional strength as well as much reduced post-cast processing requirements.
Looking further out, there are numerous scandium projects in development, many of which should come into production around the middle of the decade, thanks to two parallel forces.
The main driver for scandium, as for so many minor metals, is vehicle electrification. There are multiple operating and development projects utilising HPAL technology to recover and separate nickel and cobalt in laterite deposits, many of which can in principle recover scandium. While the moral of Tagano Bay is that for existing plants retrofitting can be costly and low yield, there are emerging projects in Australia that are designing scandium recovery into their circuits alongside nickel and cobalt. The potential output of scandium can range from 50-100tpy or more, depending on the project.
The second driver is the heightened concerns over supply chain security for critical metals. In the EU this has led to the “ScaVanger” programme to recover scandium from titanium waste streams. In the USA, red mud scandium recovery as well as by-product scandium stand to benefit.
The demand sideThe demand side is a little more complicated but nonetheless extremely positive. Bloom’s power generation business continues to grow and has surely been reinforced by severe power disruptions in the past three years in California and Texas. Moreover, Bloom has now received initial approvals for maritime power generation (IMO regulations are forcing seagoing vessels to reduce dramatically their sulphur emissions, and Bloom can facilitate this change), and Bloom is also developing its technology to run in reverse, so to speak, as a generator of hydrogen. Critically, Bloom in the past five years has managed to bring its system costs and performance under control, removing any technology-related going-concern issues.
Scandium is also a strong candidate for RF antennas able to support 5G frequencies. A typical high-end cell phone may require 100 RF filters, and in the 5G frequency range, scandium aluminium nitride is being used as the active material in these filters (called “bulk acoustic wave,” or “BAW” filters).
Aerospace is a third area of application, and while commercial aviation likely remains years away from broad use of scandium alloys, near-term use in space and autonomous aircraft is an avenue for strong potential growth of scandium alloys. The cost to place 1kg in orbit has dropped dramatically but is still of the order of US$1,000/kg, so any system weight reductions can be extremely valuable.
Electric vehicles (EVs) also offer the potential for large volumes of scandium demand. Weight reduction is the obvious reason. Lux Research has estimated a 1kg weight saving in an EV will be worth US$5 in 2030. But a second consideration is overall product cost. Scandium can reduce or potentially even eliminate the need for post-casting heat treatments, which can in some instances double the cost of an as-cast part. Thus the savings from the use of scandium alloys, especially at low scandium loadings, can be large.
In addition, as EVs shift to heat pumps in their HVAC systems, scandium can support the implementation of aluminium radiators without adding substantial system volume (as discussed by CM Group in its 2018 scandium report).
Naturally, there are other opportunities for scandium. Achieving a robust aluminium alloy able to perform at 300°C could displace large amounts of titanium, and Eck’s alloys are closing in on this goal. Maritime applications, especially in the military arena but also in autonomous vessels and ferries, could embrace scandium thanks to its greatly enhanced anti-corrosion impact in aluminium. Passenger jets are also a market that is likely to happen at some point.
Most important, perhaps, is the fact that well financed firms have entered the market and are able to supply up to about 100tpy each. Supply at this level is all-but-certain to create demand, and in turn this should stimulate new supply. Scandium’s chicken-and-egg problem, in which lack of supply held back demand that in turn held back supply, has been reversed, with growing (and reliable) supply poised to stimulate actual demand, that in turn will pull through new supply, and transform scandium from “if” to “when”.
JANUARY 2023 National Defense Act Calls out NIOBIUM & TITANIUM & SCANDIUM & the need to establish a U.S. Industrial Base for the Supply & Processing of ALL!https://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20220711/CRPT-117hrpt397.pd
SCANDIUM PAGE # 246 Briefing on the Establishment of Domestic Scandium Processing Facilities in the United StatesThe committee believes the United States industrial base for the supply and processing of the critical mineral scandium has significant vulnerabilities. The committee also believes that the United States should seek to eliminate dependence on Chinese and Russian sources of scandium, with support from allies and partners. Accordingly, public and private sectors should cooperate closely to establish scandium processing facilities in the United States. Therefore, the committee directs the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, to provide a briefing to the House Committee on Armed Services not later than May 1, 2023, on public and private sector activities, working with allied nations, to establish scandium processing facilities in the United States, especially facilities based on more efficient, cleaner, and less energy intensive technologies. This briefing will also include how these processing facilities will help the United States reduce dependence on and compete more effectively with China and Russia.
MAY 2023 ~Exploring global supply and demand of scandium oxide in 2030 ~ (NIOCORP is Mentioned!)
Exploring global supply and demand of scandium oxide in 2030 - ScienceDirect
Incorporation of scandium in materials has environmental benefits across multiple industrial sectors, particularly in decarbonization of energy. One pathway to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions is to generate electricity using hydrogen or synthetic liquid fuels, which are more efficient than combustion engines and easily used in co-generation of electricity and heat (IEA, 2019). The functional technology is a fuel cell. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) produces electricity by oxidizing an energy carrier. The standard SOFCs produced by Bloom Energy are refrigerator-sized and input liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons (methane or biogas) to produce 100 kW of power. These cells process natural gas, biogas, or hydrogen to generate electricity with higher efficiency; up to two times higher compared to a gas-fired power station with efficiency of only 33–48% (Deepika et al., 2018). They are typically used to produce electricity and heat on-site for large buildings (Bloom Energy, 2021a). Currently, SOFC producers (e.g., Bloom Energy) utilize yttrium-stabilized zirconia and a scandia-stabilized zirconia in electrolytes; however, there are benefits of utilizing scandium over yttrium. Use of scandia-stabilized zirconia increases electro-conductivity and decreases operation temperature, resulting in higher efficiency and reliability (Deepika et al., 2018; Laguna-Bercero et al., 2009). Spurred by carbon reduction and global renewable energy initiatives, Bloom Energy is expanding its partnership worldwide (Bloom Energy, 2020, 2021b), resulting in increased demand in the SOFC market and scandium oxide required to produce SOFC boxes (Weinstein et al., 2018).
Scandium also has potential for light-weighting (alloys), which is important for improving fuel economy as it requires less energy to transport lighter materials. Currently, transportation contributes 27% to total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and 14% globally (EPA, 2022; IEA, 2022b). The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards require vehicle manufacturers to continuously increase fuel efficiency (NHTSA, 2022). One approach is through light-weighting by replacing conventional aluminum alloy parts in vehicles with scandium alloys, potentially reducing 10% of vehicle mass and thus 6–8% of emissions (Joost, 2012). Given that the United States passenger vehicle emissions were 3.2 gigatonnes in 2020, this would translate to 0.2–0.3 gigatonnes of reduction (IEA, 2022a). In the United States, the Build Back Better agenda mandates 50% of new vehicles in 2030 must be EVs (The White House, 2021). To push emission reductions further than electric vehicle adoption, light-weighting should be considered. If legislation mandated regulation like Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for EVs, there will be further reductions in energy demand. Lighter scandium alloys serve to reduce energy demand from transportation, which directly aids to mitigate climate change induced by automobiles.
Another example of light-weighting is for commercial airplanes. The bionic partition structure is a wall partition between crew members and passengers, which also serves as an emergency stretcher and foldable seating for crew members (Airbus, 2016). Current commercial airplane's partition structures are bulky and heavy, weighing approximately 63 kg (Lau, 2016). Airbus and AutoDesk collaborated and successfully produced a 30 kg bionic partition structure using Scalmalloy®, a proprietary aluminum-magnesium-scandium alloy (APWORKS GmbH, 2015; Rhodes, 2015). Replacement of 4 conventional partition structures per A320 plane in commercial aircraft with Scalmalloy® structures could save up to 465,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year (Airbus, 2016).
Despite scandium's potential role in meeting future sustainability goals, historically and currently, scandium is under-utilized because of its low supply and high cost due to its nature as a by-product. Prices of scandium oxide ranged from $3,800–5,000 per kg from 2013 to 2020 (Gambogi, 2017, 2020, 2021), placing scandium among the most expensive elements in production. High prices and low supply are due in part to its production as a co-product - production is dependent on the demand of other primary metals it is mined with. For example, when there is an increase in scandium demand and price, supply does not respond instantaneously because producers need to increase production of the primary products. This leads to price volatility. Scandium oxide is produced as a co-product due to its sparse concentration in ore, which makes it uneconomical to mine alone. It has been extracted as a co-product with iron ore, other rare earths, titanium, and zirconium in China; uranium in Kazakhstan and Ukraine; apatite (phosphorus) and uranium in Russia; and nickel in the Philippines (Gambogi, 2021). The global production of scandium oxide was 14–23 tonnes (15–25 tons) per year in 2020 (Gambogi, 2021), which was small in comparison to 220,000 tonnes (240,000 tons) of global rare earths oxide per year (Cordier, 2022) and 68 million tonnes (75 million tons) of aluminum per year (Lee Bray, 2022).
Scandium appears to continue as a co-product in the future, for the most part. Mining companies expect scandium to be a minor co-product from mining other metals such as nickel, cobalt, titanium, niobium, etc. (Clean TeQ Holdings Limited, 2018; NioCorp Superalloy Materials, 2019; Platina Resource Limited, 2021; Wang et al., 2020). There is one exception in New South Wales, Australia by Scandium International Mining Corporation, whose primary product is scandium oxide (Scandium International Mining Corp, 2020). For consumption, SOFCs by Bloom Energy are the main scandium oxide consumer with 74% of total global consumption (CM Group, 2018). A typical Bloom Energy server box of 100 MW contains 13–15 kg of scandium oxide and costs $700,000–800,000 in 2010 (Ecclestone, 2020; Jenkins, 2010). Before subsidies, Bloom Energy servers cost approximately $0.14 per kilowatt-hour of electricity compared to $0.10 per kilowatt-hour of retail power price on the U.S. national grid (Helman, 2020). Although sufficient and reliable supply play an important role in other sectors (e.g., SOFCs, commercial aerospace), price is crucial in adoption in other sectors (e.g., sporting goods, beverage cans). Abstract continues....
NIOCORP MANAGEMENT ON Jan. 31st, 2023, ~What were they doing in D.C. for 4-Days?~ "Working with White House officials on critical minerals issues. This Administration is working hard to help support environmentally responsible critical minerals projects like NioCorp’s Elk Creek Project in the great State of Nebraska. "~
MAY 25th 2023 ~NioCorp Demonstrates Higher Niobium Recovery Rates New Processing Approach Demonstrates the Ability to Make More Niobium per Tonne of Ore, Produce a Higher Purity Product, and Potentially Address New Markets with Different Niobium Productshttps://www.niocorp.com/niocorp-demonstrates-higher-niobium-recovery-rates/
Potential New Forms of Niobium Products and Potential Markets
NioCorp’s new process approach, which incorporates a chlorination step to improve niobium and titanium separation and purification, also has demonstrated NioCorp’s ability to potentially produce three different niobium products: (1) ferroniobium; (2) niobium chloride; and (3) niobium oxide.NioCorp had previously planned to make ferroniobium, which is used by the steel industry to produce high-strength low-alloy steel alloys. Those alloys are used in the construction, automotive and transport, aerospace and defense, oil and gas, and other industries. Niobium is a $3.3 billion per year global market but is currently served by only three major niobium producers in two countries.Niobium chloride would likely be converted by NioCorp into niobium oxide, but niobium chloride is also used in glass and ceramic manufacturing.Niobium oxide is critical to multiple applications, including niobium-lithium-ion batteries, superalloys, superconducting applications, capacitors, specialized optics, and many others. Its use in niobium-lithium-ion batteries is considered by current niobium producers as one of the fastest growing prospective global niobium markets
MAY 26th 2023~NioCorp Demonstrates the Ability to Potentially Double Projected Titanium Recovery Rates for the Elk Creek Project
https://www.niocorp.com/niocorp-demonstrates-the-ability-to-potentially-double-projected-titanium-recovery-rates-for-the-elk-creek-project/Demonstration Plant Shows New Recovery Process May Double NioCorp’s Titanium Production per Tonne of Ore as well as Produce a Higher Purity Product that May Command Higher Market Prices
CENTENNIAL, Colo. (May 26, 2023) – NioCorp Developments Ltd. (“NioCorp” or the “Company”) (NASDAQ:NB) (TSX:NB) is pleased to announce that it has successfully demonstrated an ability to potentially double the recovery of titanium from each tonne of ore the Company expects to mine at its Nebraska-based Elk Creek Critical Minerals Project (the “Project”), once project financing is obtained and the commercial plant is constructed. The new process is expected to produce a purer form of titanium that may command a higher price than is assumed in NioCorp’s June 2022 feasibility study for the Project (the “Feasibility Study”). NioCorp’s demonstration plant in Trois Rivieres, Quebec, has shown that the Company’s new and improved recovery process can likely achieve an 83.7% rate of overall titanium recovery to final product. This compares to a 40.3% titanium recovery rate in NioCorp’s previous process approach. This new result points to a potentially large increase in the amount of titanium that NioCorp can potentially produce at currently planned rates of mining
MAY 29th 2023~NioCorp Launches Phased Approach to Commercial Production of Made-in-America Aluminum-Scandium Master Alloy
AMES LAB COLLABORATION IN 2019!
NioCorp Partnering with Nanoscale Powders LLC to Explore the Possibility of Establishing the First US-Based Mine-to-Master-Alloy Vertically Integrated Production of the High-Performance MaterialNioCorp’s Potential Commercial Production of Al-Sc Master Alloy Could Launch Prior to the Company’s Planned Production of >100 Tonnes/Year of Scandium Oxide at its Proposed Elk Creek Critical Minerals Project in Nebraska and Would Use Scandium Produced at the Elk Creek Facility as well as From Other SourcesChina Now Dominates the Scandium World, but North America is Now Positioned to Emerge as a “Leading Scandium Producer,” says NioCorp CEO
MAY 29th 2023~ Jim/NIOCORP respond to question on recent Scandium News Release above:What comes to mind right off the bat is:*A)"How is this Scandium AlSc master Alloy different than what Niocorp produced with IBC & AMES laboratory???"*Response:
"It is a different process that will be utilized. "*B) Will this be a Patentable approach now moving forward? in conjunction with Nanoscale???*Response:
" Yes and yes. But we do not discuss the details of intellectual property matters except as required by law"(\****This is very interesting indeed because a few years back Niocorp was not interested in patenting any such materials!)*
*C) IS NIOCORP still engaged with IBC, AMES & OTHER ENTITIES in regards to Scandium Alloy production & uses moving forward? and with the New Niobium & Titanium oxides as well!!!!
"We are focusing on our partnership with Nanoscale on the production of AlSc master alloy, but we engaged with a number of parties on various elements of our scandium-aluminum master alloy business development. We are not working with IBC on niobium or titanium product development efforts."
(****SOUNDS LIKE OTHER COLLABORATIONS ARE ONGOING WITH POSSIBLE PRIVATE & GOVERNMENT ENTITIES?? OFF-TAKE AGREEMENTS & SO MUCH MORE! COULD BE IN PLAY AS THE MINE IS BUILT & NEARS PRODUCTION!!!!!!)
"ENGAGED WITH A NUMBER OF VARIOUS PARTIES!!!!"
FORM YOUR OWN OPINIONS & CONCLUSIONS ABOVE!
(Please Scroll down to see earlier Reddit POST ON GREEN HYDROGEN!)https://preview.redd.it/xgyok547yr4b1.png?width=480&format=png&auto=webp&s=935baf0d83038b08431d58f6692168529e67224d
2023.06.08 09:22 Far-Train4609 What lenses are best to go with FX9?
2023.06.08 07:15 DJ4N6O I made love to a goddess named Aya
2023.06.08 04:57 khoafraelich789 50 Most Expensive Cars In The World
From Aston Martin to Zenvo, these are the most expensive supercars and hypercars ever made.submitted by khoafraelich789 to CarInformationNews [link] [comments]
When it comes to high-end hypercars and super-fast supercars, a few companies should come to mind first: Bugatti, Ferrari, Koenigsegg, Rimac, and Pagani, among others. These manufacturers have cemented themselves as the top dogs in the supercar and hypercar space, extending to their wealthiest clientele the fastest, rarest, prettiest – and in this case – most expensive cars on the planet.
But in order to find out which of these unattainable-to-most vehicles is the priciest, we've scoured the invoice sheets and uncovered 50 cars all worth $1 million or more. The group includes hybrid Ferrari convertibles, an American speed king, a few electric Hypercars, and two a one-of-a-kind Rolls-Royce cars built for royalty.
We should note, though: The prices listed here are the price of the vehicles when new. So we’re not counting auction cars like the Ferrari 250 GTO, or overpriced secondhand sales. But don’t worry, there’s still hundreds of millions worth of cars here to whet your appetite.
De Tomaso P72
Price: $1.3 Million
The De Tomaso P72 is basically the definition of beautiful. The shapely supercar debuted at the 2019 Goodwood Festival Of Speed with a supercharged Ford V8 boasting 700 horsepower. The P72 marked the return of the DeTomaso brand after nearly 30 years on hiatus, and if you want one, it will cost you at least $1.3 million.
Price: $1.4 Million
At $1.4 million new, the Ferrari LaFerrari is actually one of the most affordable supercars on this list. It’s a bargain compared to the most expensive vehicle here. Debuting in 2013 with 950 hybrid horses (708 kilowatts) and a top speed of around 220 miles per hour (354 kilometers per hour), this is still Ferrari’s fastest and most powerful production model to date. The company built just 499 examples of the coupe between 2013 and 2016.
Price: $1.4 Million
Inarguably one of the prettiest cars on this list, the Pagani Huayra cost a cool $1.4 million when new. Like the LaFerrari, Pagani built the Huayra in extremely limited numbers. The company hand-constructed just 100 units of the coupe between 2012 and 2018, with another 20 versions of the BC model (which makes our list further down) between 2017 and 2019. Powering each and every example was a Mercedes-AMG V12 capable of 720 horsepower (537 kilowatts).
Price: $1.7 Million
The McLaren Elva is one of the latest additions to the British supercar maker’s storied legacy. Even without a proper windshield (though, no option) or roof to rely on, the Elva produces 804 horsepower and 590 pound-feet of torque from its twin-turbocharged 4.0-liter V8. Originally McLaren announced just 399 units, but later the company dropped that to an even more scarce 249 examples. Either way, most of you will never get your hands on one – the Elva costs $1.7 million.
Price: $1.7 Million
You might not know the name Czinger yet, but this California-based boutique automaker is responsible for the $1.7 million 21C supercar. With 1,250 horsepower on tap thanks to a 2.9-liter twin-turbocharged V8, the 21C can rocket to 60 miles per hour in 1.9 seconds and a top speed of around 281 miles per hour.
Price: $1.7 Million
Much like the roof-less McLaren Elva, the Ferrari Monza SP1 and SP2 are all about al fresco motoring. As the name implies, the SP1 is the single-seater option while the SP2 has just enough room for you to bring along a friend. Both cars come powered by the same naturally aspirated 6.5-liter V12 engine capable of 809 horsepower and 530 pound-feet. Unfortunately for US buyers, neither of these models are street legal in the States. But f you have the funds to afford the car’s $1.75 million price tag, getting onto a track probably won’t be an issue anyway.
Gordon Murray T.33
Price: $1.7 Million
The second and slightly more affordable supercar in the new Gordon Murray lineup is the T.33. With 607 horsepower courtesy of a naturally aspirated 3.9-liter V12, the T.33 revs to a ridiculous 10,500 RPM. With a price tag of around $1.7 million at current conversion rates, Gordon Murray automotive promises to sell this car globally, in both right- and left-hand-drive configurations. Too bad it's already sold out.
Price: $1.7 Million
One of two Koenigsegg models on this list, the Gemera is actually the Swedish supercar maker’s first four-seater. But that doesn’t mean it’s some family car. With a twin-turbocharged 2.0-liter engine under the hood and three electric motors, the Gemera has 1,700 horsepower and will hit 60 in just 1.9 seconds. The company only plans to build 300 of them, each one costing at least $1.7 million.
Price: $1.7 Million
Hailing from Denmark, the Zenvo TSR-S debuted in 2018 at the Geneva Motor Show as the most extreme option in the supercar startup’s repertoire. Boasting a twin-charged 5.8-liter V8 engine, the TSR-S produces 1,177 horsepower and will hit 62 miles per hour in just 2.8 seconds. Expect to pay at least $1.7 million to get your hands on this powerful and limited supercar.
Hennessey Venom F5
Price: $1.8 Million
The Hennessey Venom GT was a record-breaker, topping out at 265.7 miles per hour in a world record run. But the new F5 plans to beat its predecessor with an estimated top speed of 311 mph, and with that comes a higher price, too. The Venom F5 starts at $1.8 million, according to the company, which makes it just a bit pricier than its $1.2-million predecessor.
Price: $1.9 Million
With just 12 total units produced, the Bentley Bacalar makes some of the "limited" cars on this list look plentiful by comparison. Although the car’s opulent design may be the first thing to grab your attention, the Bacalar is no slouch in terms of performance either. With Bentley’s signature turbocharged 6.0-liter W12 turbocharged engine, this car delivers 650 horsepower and 664 pound-feet. If you have a spare $1.9 million lying around and are considering buying one, you’re already too late – Bentley says that every example is now in customer hands.
Hispano Suiza Carmen Boulogne
Price: $1.9 Million
To call the Hispano Suiza Carmen Boulogne beautiful would be... a stretch. But this interesting-looking supercar made its US debut at this year's Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance boasting a 1,114-horsepower electric powertrain and a 0-60 time of 2.6 seconds. The Boulogne version pictured here – the lighter and more powerful of the two – costs close to $1.9 million.
Bentley Mulliner Batur
Price: $2.0 Million
The electric onslaught is coming. Bentley says it will be a fully electric automaker by 2030. But before the luxury brand transitions to battery power fully, the Mulliner Batur helps send the iconic W12 engine off in style. With 710 horsepower from that twin-turbocharged engine, the Batur is the most powerful Bentley ever. And since it's limited to just 18 examples globally, the Batur costs a whopping $2.0 million.
Price: $2.0 Million
The Deus Vayanne may not be a household name (yet), but the all-electric hypercar debuted earlier this year with 2,200 horsepower, a 0-60 time of just under 2.0 seconds, and an estimated top speed of 248 miles per hour. Deus plans to build 99 examples of the Vayanne, with the first few examples scheduled to go on sale in 2025.
Price: $2.0 Million*
Although initially cloaked in controversy, SSC did manage to hit 282.9 miles per hour with its Tuatara hypercar, breaking a world record. But not only is the Tuatara one of the fastest vehicles on the planet, it’s also one of the priciest. The cost for all that speed is estimated to be around $2.0 million for the base Tuatara, limited to just 100 units worldwide.
Price: $2.1 Million
With a new Emira sports car and an Eletre electric SUV, Lotus is on the brink of a comeback. The automaker plans to roll out a number of new products within the next few years, with part of that strategy including the range-topping Evija. This supercar comes in at a cool $2.1 million and produces nearly 2,000 horsepower via four electric motors. Lotus plans to build just 130 road-going examples of the Evija.
Aston Martin Vulcan
Price: $2.3 Million
As with a few other cars on this list, the Aston Martin Vulcan was a track-only special. The British supercar made its world debut in 2015, powered by a naturally aspirated 7.0-liter V12 that produced 820 horsepower, and limited to just 24 examples worldwide. An even more track-focused AMR Pro model followed, but even the base Vulcan was a pricey commodity, costing about $2.4-million from the factory.
Price: $2.3 Million
You may have heard of Delage before. In the early 1900s, this French automaker was competing on the track with Bugatti and Ferrari. Now Delage is back and with a beautiful new hypercar dubbed the D12. Powered by a 7.6-liter V12 engine, the new D12 produces upwards of 1,010 horsepower and costs a cool $2.3 million.
Price: $2.3 Million
What would you pay for the fastest production McLaren ever? Well, at least $2.3 million. With 1,035 horsepower courtesy of a gasoline-electric hybrid V8 powertrain, the Speedtail tops out at 250 miles per hour and is able to reach 186 mph in just 12.8 seconds – 2.7 seconds faster than the P1. Unfortunately, if you didn't get your hands on one new in 2020, you'll have to shell out serious cash on the used market. McLaren only built 106 examples.
Price: $2.4 Million
The Rimac Nevera takes the title of most expensive EV with its $2.4 million price tag – but only by a few hundred thousand dollars over the next priciest electric supercar. Packing 1,914 horsepower and 1,740 pound-feet of torque, the Nevera can hit 60 in under 2.0 seconds and will continue on to a top speed of 258 miles per hour. Those lucky enough to order one should see it in their driveway before the end of 2022.
Price: $2.5 Million
First came the Zonda, then the Huayra, and now the Pagani Utopia. With 852 horsepower and an available seven-speed manual gearbox, the Utopia is the most powerful road-going Pagani ever produced and it’s limited to just 99 examples worldwide. The cost for one is a cool $2.5 million.
Price: $2.5 Million
Aptly named after the company’s founder, Battista Farina, the Pininfarina Battista delivers the kind of performance (and price!) to make its namesake proud. Revealed at the 2019 Geneva Motor Show, the Battista is completely electric, putting out 1,827 horsepower. If a normal supercar’s 0 to 60 time sounds too leisurely for you, the company says that the Battista will take you there in under 2.0 seconds. Pininfarina plans on building 150 examples of the Battista, costing $2.5 million each.
Ferrari FXX K Evo
Price: $2.6 Million
Sure, you could buy a normal LaFerrari (which also makes the list further down), but why settle for a supercar so mundane when you can take home this track-only version instead? Granted, the Ferrari FXX K Evo came out in 2017, and it's well past the point of being sold out. But when it was new, this 1,036-horsepower Ferrari tore up the track with its naturally aspirated V12 and aggressive aerodynamics.
Gordon Murray T.50
Price: $2.6 Million
If the name Gordon Murray sounds familiar, it’s because he's the man behind the design of the iconic McLaren F1. These days, Mr. Murray has his own supercar venture, and the handsome T.50 is the crown jewel of the lineup. At $2.6 million, the T.50 packs a naturally aspirated 4.0-liter V12 that makes 654 horsepower. The car itself weighs a mere 2,174 pounds, and at 392 pounds, the T.50 has the lightest V12 on the road today.
Price: $2.6 Million
The name Countach may be iconic, but is it worth $2.6 million? That's what Lamborghini hopes you will spend on its new Aventador-based model. Debuting in August of 2021, the Countach LPI 800-4 has a 6.5-liter V12 with a light hybrid assist that gives it a whopping 803 horsepower, allowing for a 60 time of 2.8 seconds and a top speed of more than 220 miles per hour.
Mercedes-AMG Project One
Price: $2.7 Million
Mercedes has promised a production version of the Project One hypercar for quite a while now. The first official announcement was in March of 2017 before the first concept debuted later that same year. But after nearly five years of teasing, it appears as if the Project One will finally hit public roads. And when it does, the hybrid hypercar will have over 1,200 horsepower (895 kilowatts) and a price tag of $2.7 million.
Aston Martin Victor
Price: $3.0 Million
The folks at Aston Martin know a thing or two about exclusive vehicles, and the Victor might be the most exclusive project for the British brand to date. Based on the One-77 platform, the Victor uses parts from several donor Astons including the track project Vulcan and the upcoming Valkyrie. And talking about limited production – the Victor is one-of-one and rumored to cost nearly $3 million.
Hennessey Venom F5 Roadster
The same Hennessey Venom F5 hypercar we all know and love, but with less roof. The F5 Roadster has the same twin-turbocharged 6.6-liter V8 as the coupe, producing the same 1,817 horsepower and 1,193 pound-feet of torque. Hennessey estimates a top speed of over 300 miles per hour, but if you want one, it will cost you at least $3.0 million.
Price: $3.0 Million
The Koenigsegg Jesko, apart from being the fastest car the company has made to date, is also the most expensive. At $3.0 million out of the box, the handsome hypercar has 1,600-horsepower courtesy of the brand's ubiquitous twin-turbocharged 5.0-liter V8 engine. Opt for the Absolut model, and the Jesko, in theory, will be able to hit 300 miles per hour.
Aston Martin Valkyrie
Price: $3.2 Million
The upcoming Aston Martin hybrid hypercar hasn’t even hit the market yet, but already the $3.2 million Valkyrie has sold out. For what it’s worth, Aston Martin hasn’t officially released pricing. Estimates suggest the hypercar could go for anywhere between $2.6 and $3.9 million – but $3.2 million seems to be the magic number. Whatever the case, this machine is impressive. Its Cosworth-sourced 6.5-liter V12 produces 1,160 horsepower (865 kilowatts) and 664 pound-feet (900 Newton-meters) of torque, meaning its top speed should be well over 200 miles per hour (321 kilometers per hour). The company will build just 150 examples of the standard Valkyrie, with a limited 25-run AMR model arriving later.
W Motors Lykan Hypersport
Price: $3.4 Million
Dubai-based W Motors shocked the world with its edgy Lykan Hypersport supercar in 2013. With titanium LED headlights housing 420 15-carat diamonds and a holographic display in the center console, it's no surprise it was the third most expensive car ever when new. It falls to number six on our list here, but it's still a wild hypercar with a powerful heart; the twin-turbocharged 3.7-liter six-cylinder engine underhood produces 780 horsepower (581 kilowatts) and 708 (960 Newton-meters) of torque.
One seat, 829 horsepower, and a top speed of over 200 miles per hour. The new McLaren Solus is about as close as you can get to a Formula 1 car from the factory, powered by a naturally aspirated 5.2-liter V10 engine with a 0-62 mile-per-hour time of just 2.5 seconds. Estimates suggest a McLaren Solus will set you back about $3.5 million.
Pagani Huayra Roadster BC
Price: $3.5 Million
Following Pagani’s past playbook, a roadster version of the ferocious Huayra BC was inevitable. Last year, the company made it official by showing off the Huayra Roadster BC, a topless monster with 800 horsepower (597 kilowatts) and 774 lb-ft of torque (1049 Newton-meters). Somewhat surprisingly, Pagani gave the roadster 50 more horsepower than its coupe sibling, by cranking up its AMG-sourced twin-turbocharged 6.0-liter V12. In addition to the joy of hearing the glorious engine note without a roof in the way, owners should take comfort in knowing that their car is ultra-rare. Pagani is limiting production to just 40 units, each with a sticker price of $3.5 million.
Bugatti Chiron Pur Sport
Price: $3.6 Million
Another showstopper from the Geneva Motor Show that never was, the Bugatti Chiron Pur Sport is a special edition Chiron with a focus on aerodynamics, weight reduction, and power distribution. It’s the same 8.0-liter quad-turbo W16 engine underneath the skin but it’s now mated to a recalibrated automatic gearbox. While the peak output remains unchanged at 1,500 horsepower (1,103 kilowatts), the rpm redline has been set 200 rpm higher, up to 6,900 rpm. The Pur Sport also features slightly revised bodywork, with a bigger rear wing and more aerodynamic front fascia. Beginning production in late 2020, the Bugatti starts at $3.6 million.
Price: $3.6 million
In several ways, the Sian represents a bridge to Lamborghini’s future. Though it’s based on the Aventador SVJ, this wild-looking Lambo is the brand’s first production electrified offering. In addition to the SVJ-sourced 6.5-liter V12, the Sian uses a 48-volt mild-hybrid system. Total system output is 819 horsepower (611 kilowatts), which also makes it the most powerful Lamborghini ever. As confirmed by the 63 stuck on either side of the Sian’s wing, Lamborghini will produce just 63 units. And each will cost far more than the Aventador SVJ, carrying a price of $3.6 million.
Price: $3.7 Million
The Koenigsegg CC850 was a surprise to be sure, but a welcomed one. Borrowing the twin-turbocharged 5.0-liter V8 from the Jesko, it notches that output up to 1,385 horsepower and 1,022 pound-feet of torque, with a so-called “TWMPAFMPC” transmission that shifts (pun intended) between manual and automatic functions. Of course, all that performance technology will cost you; the CC850 starts at $3.7 million.
Bugatti Chiron Super Sport 300+
Price: $3.9 Million
Earlier this year, Bugatti captured the collective attention of the automotive world by announcing that it broke the 300 miles per hour barrier with a modified version of the Chiron. The Super Sport 300 + is a road-going version of that car, meant to celebrate the occasion. Limited to just 30 units, the Super Sport 300+ is a beautiful version of the Chiron, with flowing, slippery bodywork and a sweet stripe motif. Despite having hit 304.8 mph on the track with a production vehicle, Bugatti does limit its Chiron 300+ to 273 mph in top speed mode.
Price: $4.5 Million
Lamborghini built just 14 examples of the Aventador-based Veneno between 2014 and 2015. Each one cost around $4.5 million, depending on how it was spec'd, and was available in both convertible and coupe configurations. Underhood Lamborghini fitted a more-powerful iteration of the Aventador's 6.5-liter V12, now producing 740 horsepower (552 kilowatts) and 509 pound-feet (609 Newton-meters) of torque, which gave it the ability to sprint to 60 miles per hour (96 kilometers per hour) in a blistering 2.9 seconds. To date, it’s the most expensive new Lamborghini ever.
Price: $4.7 Million
Produced in extremely limited numbers atop the body of a Chiron, it's no wonder Bugatti's one-of-40 Bolide track car is this pricey. At $4.7 million, the 1,824-horsepower hypercar has more power than the Chiron Super Sport 300+, and more extreme bodywork that allow it to lap tracks like the Nurburgring in record time (in theory). Bugatti says the Bolide would be able to conquer the ‘Ring in record time.
Price: $5.0 Million
The Bugatti Mistral sends the iconic W16 engine off in style. With 1,577 horsepower and no roof, the Mistral takes the best bits of the Chiron and borrows elements from the Bolide and Divo to create a truly unique roadster. Of course, Bugatti plans to build just 99 examples of the Mistral at the cost of around $5.0 million in the US – and all of them are already accounted for.
Pagani Huayra Imola
Price: $5.4 Million
Even though the new Utopia marks the next big step for Pagani, the Huayra Imola packs nearly as much power with a twin-turbocharged 6.0-liter V12 engine producing 827 horsepower and 811 pound-feet of torque. The Huayra Imola is estimated to cost around $5.4 million new, which would make it the second most expensive Pagani of all time.
Price: $5.8 Million
Among Bugatti’s recently debuted vehicles, the Divo is a staff favorite. Though it shares much in common with its cheaper (!) sibling the Chiron, the Divo has a lot going for it to justify the extra money. By adding lighter wheels, a carbon fiber intercooler and removing some sound deadening, Bugatti made the Divo 77 pounds lighter than the Chiron. Though power is unchanged from the Chiron’s 1,500 ponies (1,119 kilowatts), The Divo features a different aerodynamic setup, which makes it 8 seconds quicker around the Nardo test track. Finally, the moment you’ve been waiting for: Bugatti is making 40 examples of the car, each costing $5.8 million.
SP Automotive Chaos
Price: $6.4 Million
SP Automotive (short for Spyros Panopoulos) is a new name in the world of hypercars, but the brand's 2,000-horsepower, $6.4-million, aptly named Chaos has already made an impact. With a twin-turbocharged 4.0-liter V10, the base SP Automotive Chaos is one of the most expensive cars on this list – beating out many Lambos and Bugattis – but there's an even pricier version of this car that costs an eye-watering $14.4 million. That version reportedly packs 3,000 hp.
Price: $7.4 Million
The long list of pricey (new) Paganis ends with the Codualunga. Inspired by 1960s Italian coachbuilding, the stunning exterior and steampunk-esque interior – while equally stunning – are only part of what makes this Pagani so pricey. Under the hood is a twin-turbocharged 6.0-liter V12 producing 829 horsepower and 809 pound-feet of torque, paired to a seven-speed sequential transmission for a real race-car–like feel. The cost for this one-of-five Pagani is $7.4 million.
Price: $8.0 Million
Like many others before it, the Mercedes-Benz Maybach Exelero is a one-off. Commissioned by Fulda, a German subsidiary of Goodyear, to test its new tires, the Exlero debuted in 2004. Mercedes built the Exelero on the bones of a Maybach, and gave it the same twin-turbo V12 engine producing 690 horsepower (510 kilowatts) and 752 pound-feet (1,020 Newton-meters) of torque. Top speed is listed at 218 miles per hour (350 kilometers per hour) and adjusted for inflation, the Exelero would cost more than $10 million in today's money.
Price: $9.0 Million
Bugatti debuted the Centodieci at last year’s Pebble Beach car week, showing off yet another ultra-rare, super-expensive model to the world. Limited to just 10 – dieci – units, the car is a modern throwback to the Bugatti EB110. At the same time, it’s meant to celebrate Bugatti’s momentous 110-year anniversary. Its unique styling cues won’t make everyone fall in love, but at least you won’t have to worry about seeing another one on the road. Carrying a price just shy of $9 million, the Centodiece is one of the most exclusive cars ever made.
Bugatti Chiron Profilée
Price: $10.8 Million
While it may not look that different from a normal Chiron, the Profilée is quite literally one-of-a-kind. Bugatti built it initially as a test for a limited run of Profilée models, but this Chiron ended up being the only example. Boasting the same 1,476-horsepower quad-turbocharged W16 engine ubiquitous throughout the Chiron range, the Profilée has unique bodywork and a custom spoiler that helps separate it from the rest of the range.
Price: $12.8 Million
Rolls-Royce, expectedly, takes two of the top three spots on this list, with the stunning Sweptail one-off from 2017 coming in at number three. With a monumental price tag of $13.0 million, it was, at the time of its debut, the most expensive new car ever. It's been outpriced since then, but the 453-horsepower luxury car is still a jaw-dropper.
Bugatti La Voiture Noire
Price: $13.4 Million
With a price tag of $13.4 million, the one-off Bugatti La Voiture Noire is officially the most expensive new Bugatti ever made. And understandably so. A modern interpretation of Jean Bugatti's personal Type 57 SC Atlantic, the La Voiture Noire uses the same quad-turbocharged 8.0-liter W16 engine as the Chiron, producing 1,479 horsepower. It has six – that's right, six exhaust tips, radical new wheels, an aggressive, bespoke fascia, and a gigantic light-up badge in the rear that spells out the name of the brand. Of course, this one-of-one Bugatti already has a home.
Rolls-Royce Boat Tail*
Price: $28.0 Million (est.)
Rolls-Royce is back in the business of coachbuilding with the gorgeous new Boat Tail. A successor to the stunning Sweptail from 2017 – which itself cost a reported $12.8 million – the Boat Tail has a unique two-tone exterior, custom high-end finishes inside, and even a "hosting suite" complete with a champagne fridge and built-in sun umbrella. Although Rolls-Royce doesn’t officially announce pricing for one-off builds such as this, rumor has it that the Boat Tail cost a whopping $28.0 million new.
Most Expensive Cars In The World
Drako GTE - $1.2 Million
DeTomaso P72: $1.3 Million
Ferrari LaFerrari - $1.4 Million
Pagani Huayra - $1.4 Million
Czinger 21C - $1.7 Million
Ferrari Monza - $1.7 Million
Gordon Murray T.33 - $1.7 Million
Koenigsegg Gemera - $1.7 Million
McLaren Elva - $1.7 Million
Zenvo TSR-S - $1.7 Million
Hennessey Venom F5 - $1.8 Million
Bentley Bacalar - $1.9 Million
Hispano Suiza Carmen Boulogne: $1.9 Million
Bentley Mulliner Batur: $2.0 Million
Deus Vayanne: $2.0 Million
SSC Tuatara - $2.0 Million*
Lotus Evija - $2.1 Million
Aston Martin Vulcan - $2.3 Million
Delage D12: $2.3 Million
McLaren Speedtail - $2.3 Million
Rimac Nevera - $2.4 Million
Pagani Utopia: $2.5 Million
Pininfarina Battista - $2.5 Million
Ferrari FXX K Evo - $2.6 Million
Gordon Murray T.50 - $2.6 Million
Lamborghini Countach - $2.6 Million
Mercedes-AMG Project One - $2.7 Million
Aston Martin Victor - $3.0 Million
Hennessey Venom F5 Roadster: $3.0 Million
Koenigsegg Jesko - $3.0 Million
Aston Martin Valkyrie - $3.2 Million
W Motors Lykan Hypersport - $3.4 Million
McLaren Solus: $3.5 Million
Pagani Huayra Roadster BC - $3.5 Million
Bugatti Chiron Pur Sport - $3.6 Million
Lamborghini Sian - $3.6 million
Koenigsegg CC850: $3.7 Million
Bugatti Chiron Super Sport 300+ - $3.9 Million
Lamborghini Veneno - $4.5 Million
Bugatti Bolide - $4.7 Million
Bugatti Mistral: $5.0 Million
Pagani Huayra Imola: $5.4 Million
Bugatti Divo - $5.8 Million
SP Automotive Chaos - $6.4 Million
Pagani Codalunga: $7.4 Million
Mercedes-Maybach Exelero - $8.0 Million
Bugatti Centodieci - $9.0 Million
Rolls-Royce Sweptail - $12.8 Million
Bugatti La Voiture Noire - $13.4 Million
Rolls-Royce Boat Tail - $28.0 Million*
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2023.06.07 08:05 richi-carmen Why should fowl feed processing maker lubricated?
Chicken feed handling equipment makers all know that throughout the operation of the feed machinery, there will certainly be equivalent rubbing in between the components touching each other, from damages to the parts to affecting the production of mechanical devices, hence causing the mechanical equipment to stop working and also causing significant economic losses to the business. Therefore, routine lubrication is usually needed to guarantee the regular procedure of the pet feed pellet making device.submitted by richi-carmen to pelletmachinery [link] [comments]
When oiling feed machinery, fowl feed handling equipment manufacturers generally consist of a number of different lubrication states, which can be separated into border rubbing, completely dry rubbing and also liquid rubbing. Typically speaking, oiling the friction parts of tools can properly decrease friction, greatly decrease tools wear and also performance intake, boost devices operating efficiency, as well as extend equipment life. As one of the major ways to enhance devices efficiency, lubrication modern technology has ended up being a common problem in related areas.
Chicken feed handling machine makers require to take note that in the process of lubrication, they must not be thoughtlessly executed, but need to formulate a lubrication management plan in accordance with the development of the business according to the real production situation of the poultry feed equipment itself, so regarding make greater efforts for the typical operation of the enterprise equipment. contribution.Why should the chicken feed pellet making maker be kept oiled?
Generally, the importance of lubricating treatment has been highlighted again and again, mostly due to the fact that appropriate lubricating treatment can substantially decrease the wear degree of feed pellet mills and make certain smooth manufacturing job. As we all recognize, any kind of poultry feed processing equipment will inevitably have troubles such as reduced flexibility, reduced operating efficiency as well as damage after long-term usage. At this time, the maintenance of equipment certainly squanders labor and also material resource expenses, and also creates ventures to endure better economic losses.
Chicken feed processing makers are no exemption. In the long-lasting usage procedure, if there is a absence of corresponding lubrication, the friction stamina in between the get in touch with parts will unavoidably boost, resulting in damage to the parts and also impacting the typical use of the entire fowl feed handling equipment. Therefore, having a good lubrication program in place before a issue takes place in the equipment will certainly be a preventive measure to extend the life of the devices.
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The Followings Are More Frequently Asked Questions concerning Chicken Feed Pellet Machines ：.
With the opening of 2022, the sales of Richi Equipment's fowl feed handling equipments have actually been increasing progressively. However, for the small troubles caused by the wrong procedure of clients, a brief recap is as complies with:.
1. What should I do if the poultry feed handling equipment can not be pushed?
Encountering this problem, numerous close friends will absolutely assume that this scenario will also take place when their feed pellet devices are generating feed pellets. This is actually a headache, not just wasting raw materials, but likewise considerably raising the trouble of screening feed pellets. Today, a technologist will certainly go over the factors for this sensation with you.
Lately, several customers reported that the fowl pellet maker created a great deal of powder, as well as the pellets were not tight enough, the feed pellets were always soft, so what happened?
In general, is this considered a feed component or formula? Relatively slow-moving production modifications, or changes to dishes, can promptly accomplish the wanted results. Omitting feed ingredients and also solutions, we will certainly evaluate the maker setup for internal issues.
( 1) The mold and mildew wear is too large, the filter holes are flattened, and also the expansion is significant, resulting in a decline in pellet stress, impacting the pellet forming price, and causing excessive powder.
( 2) The wetness web content of the raw material is too low or expensive. If the water content is too expensive, the powder will not be excessive, yet the pellet hardness is reduced, and also the pellets of the fowl feed pelleting device are easy to loosen up. The raw product has a low water content and is tough to squeeze out, leading to way too much powder.
( 3) The poultry feed pellet maker is aging, the power is insufficient, the motor can not give enough rate, as well as the matching stress is generated to press right into pellets.
( 4) The top quality of the ring die is bad, or the compression is not too high.
( 5) Think about making use of grease.
( 6) The feeding scrape is not set up correctly, and the feeding can not go into the pressing chamber.
( 7) The placement of the cutter is wrong, and the discharge material is squeezed right into powder ( yet if the hole is commonly blocked, it is unlikely).
( 8) Moisture control describes the comprehensive control of various aspects according to different situations in the entire production process, so that the final water material of the item can get to the anticipated target of the manufacturer. The main variables impacting the final water material of feed products are: water material of feed components, water changes in the squashing stage, fluid addition in the mixing phase, steam water material, conditioning degree, die hole size as well as thickness, cooler air quantity and air-drying time, product packaging.
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The influence of high quality administration and also different weather and environmental aspects ( usually, the dampness web content of pellet feed after handling will not go beyond 12.5; but in the north, pellet feed will not go beyond 13.5. If handling in summertime, due to the high ambient temperature, the optimum dampness content of ended up pellets shall not exceed 13.5. 12.5, otherwise it is very easy to mold and mildew and wear away).
Feed pellets rate by more and more farmers as well as herdsmen with their distinct advantages. It is simple to shop as well as transport, and it is also helpful for pet food digestion. Compared with ordinary feed, it is rich in nutrients and also has a good market possibility. Actually, the manufacturing procedure of feed pellets is a process of distribution ratio, as long as you master the proportion. Certainly, when the pellets begin, obviously inexperienced, but do it two times. The basic poultry feed handling machine maker's handbook will discuss the distribution ratio of feed pellets, which can be described.
2. No pellets.
（ 1 ） Reason.
The new poultry feed handling maker was not run-in with lubricating oil or was not run-in sufficient;.
The moisture web content of feed raw materials is expensive;.
（ 2 ） Option.
Remove the raw materials in the existing fowl feed processing machine, as well as add oil to the raw products to run in the brand-new maker, and the proportion of each time is: 1:3.
Add some dry active ingredients to readjust the wetness.
3. The electric motor quits all of a sudden.
（ 1 ） Reason.
The voltage is as well low.
The pressure between journalism roller as well as the die plate is expensive.
（ 2 ） Option.
Usage 4mm cable to avoid tripping throughout use.
Loosen up some screws.
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