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AtheismComedy

2013.06.29 19:48 Existenti4lism AtheismComedy

An arena for any atheist related comedy, this relates to anything that atheists find funny and entertaining aswell as anything about atheism itself, perspectives of athiesm AND religion. Because of course from an atheists perspective religion can be fucking hilarious at times - This is an archive of a specific type.
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2017.09.29 21:21 PresidentRaggy Chelsea FC Women

The Reddit home for fans of four-time WSL winners Chelsea FC Women! Find transfer news, match day discussion, analysis, and more here. UTC!
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2023.06.02 18:13 bikingfencer Galatians: introductions through chapter 2

Galatians  
The Gospel of Paul  
Paul can be forgiven for equating the destruction of Israel with the end of the world. Everyone who loves Israel wants to save her, the controversy between the Judaizers and Paul was over how to do it.  
From The Interpreters’ Bible:  
"Introduction  
-1. Occasion and Purpose  
Conservative preachers were persuading the Galatians that faith was not enough to make sure of God’s kingdom. Besides believing that Jesus was the Messiah, one must join the Jewish nation, observe the laws and customs of Moses, and refuse to eat with the Gentiles (2:11-14, 4:10). One must have Christ and Moses, faith and law. Paul insisted that it must be either Moses or Christ. (5:2-6). [Mind you, the congregations were literally segregated at meals according to whether the male members’ foreskins were circumcised; compare with the trouble regarding the allocations between the two groups of widows reported in Acts.]  
Not content with raising doubts concerning the sufficiency of Christ, the Judaizers attacked Paul’s credentials. They said that he had not been one of the original apostles, and that he was distorting the gospel which Peter and John and James the Lord’s brother were preaching. They declared that his proposal to abandon the law of Moses was contrary to the teaching of Jesus, and they insinuated that he had taken this radical step to please men with the specious promise of cheap admission to God’s kingdom (1:10). If he were allowed to have his way, men would believe and be baptized but keep on sinning, deluding themselves that the Christian sacraments would save them. Claiming to rise above Moses and the prophets, they would debase faith into magic, liberty into license, making Christ the abettor of sin (2:17). The Judaizers were alarmed lest Paul bring down God’s wrath and delay the kingdom. They had not shared the emotion of a catastrophic conversion like Paul’s, and they found it hard to understand when he talked about a new power which overcame sin and brought righteousness better than the best that the law could produce.  
Another party attacked Paul from the opposite side. Influenced by the pagan notion that religion transcends ethics and is separable from morality, they wanted to abandon the Old Testament and its prophetic insights. They could not see how Paul’s demand to crucify one’s old sinful nature and produce the fruit of the Spirit could be anything but a new form of slavery to law (2:19-20, 5:14, 2-24). They accused him of rebuilding the old legalism, and some said that he was still preaching circumcision (2:18; 5:11). Whereas the Judaizers rejected Paul’s gospel because they believed it contrary to the teaching of the original apostles, these antilegalists felt that he was so subservient to the apostles as to endanger the freedom of the Christian Movement.  
Actually Paul had risen above both legalism and sacramentarianism ... his faith was qualitatively different from mere assent to a creed (5:6). He was living on the plateau of the Spirit, where life was so free that men needed no law to say ‘Thou shalt’ and ‘Thou shalt not’ (5:22-24). But this rarefied atmosphere was hard to breathe, and neither side could understand him. The conservatives were watching for moral lapses… and the radicals blamed him for slowing the progress of Christianity by refusing to cut it loose from Judaism and its nationalistic religious imperialism.” (Stamm, TIB 1953, vol. X pp. 430)  
Paul’s defense of his gospel and apostleship was the more difficult because he had to maintain his right to go directly to Christ without the mediation of Peter and the rest, but had to do it in such a way as not to split the church and break the continuity of his gospel with the Old Testament and the apostolic traditions about Jesus and his teaching. …  
To this end Paul gave an account of his relations with the Jerusalem church during the seventeen years that followed his conversion (1:11-2:14). Instead of going to Jerusalem he went to Arabia, presumably to preach (1:17). After a time he returned to Damascus, and only three years later did he go to see Peter. Even then he stayed only fifteen days and saw no other apostle except James the Lord’s brother (1:18-20). Then he left for Syria and Cilicia, and not until another fourteen years had passed did he visit Jerusalem again. This time it was in response to a revelation from his Lord, and not to a summons by the authorities in the Hoy City.  
Paul emphasizes that neither visit implied an admission that his gospel needed the apostolic stamp to make it valid. His purpose was to get the apostles to treat the uncircumcised Gentile Christians as their equals in the church (2:2). Making a test case of Titus, he won his point (2:3-5). The apostles agreed that a Gentile could join the church by faith without first becoming a member of the synagogue by circumcision. … They … recognize[d] that his mission to the Gentiles was on the same footing as theirs to the Jews – only he was to remember the poor (2:7-10). So far was Paul from being subordinated that when Peter came to Antioch and wavered on eating with the Gentile Christians, Paul did not hesitate to rebuke him in public (2:11-14). (Stamm, 1953, TIB vol. X pp. 430-431)  
Paul’s defense of his apostolic commission involved the question: What is the seat of authority in religion? A Jewish rabbi debating the application of the kosher laws would quote the authority of Moses and the fathers in support of his view. Jewish tradition declared that God delivered the law to Moses, and Moses to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the men of the Great Synagogue, and that they had handed it down through an unbroken rabbinical succession to the present. If Paul had been a Christian rabbi, he could have treated the Sermon on the Mount as a new law from a new Sinai, which God had delivered to Jesus, and Jesus to Peter, and Peter to Paul, and Paul to Timothy and Titus, and so on through an unbroken apostolic succession until the second coming of Christ. Instead of taking his problems directly to this Lord in prayer, he would ask, ‘What does Peter say that Jesus did and said about it?’ And if Peter or the other apostles happened not to have a pronouncement from Jesus on a given subject, they would need to apply some other saying to his by reasoning from analogy. This would turn the gospel into a system of legalism, with casuistry for its guide, making Jesus a second Moses – a prophet who lived and died in a dim and distant past and left only a written code to guide the future. Jesus would not have been the living Lord, personally present in his church in every age as the daily companion of his members. That is why Paul insisted that Christ must not be confused or combined with Moses, but must be all in all.  
The Judaizers assumed that God had revealed to Moses all of his will, and nothing but this will, for all time, changeless and unchangeable; and that death was the penalty for tampering with it. The rest of the scriptures and the oral tradition which developed and applied them were believed to be implicit in the Pentateuch as an oak in an acorn. The first duty of the teacher was to transmit the Torah exactly as he had received it from the men of old. Only then might he give his own opinion, which must never contradict but always be validated by the authority of the past. When authorities differed, the teacher must labor to reconcile them. Elaborate rules of interpretation were devised to help decide cases not covered by specific provision in the scripture. These rules made it possible to apply a changeless revelation to changing conditions, but they also presented a dilemma. The interpreter might modernize by reading into his Bible ideas that were not in the minds of its writers, or he might quench his own creative insights by fearing to go beyond what was written. Those who modernized the Old Testament were beset with the perils of incipient Gnosticism, while those who, like the Sadducees, accepted nothing but the written Torah could misuse it to obstruct social and religious progress. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 431-432)  
To submit to circumcision would have betrayed the truth of the gospel because it contradicted the principle that all is of grace and grace is for all (2:5). Perpetuated in the church of Christ, the kosher code and other Jewish customs would have destroyed the fellowship. Few things could have hurt the feelings and heaped more indignity upon the Gentiles than the spiritual snobbery of refusing to eat with them.  
The tragedy of division was proportional to the sincerity of men’s scruples. The Jews were brought up to believe that eating with Gentiles was a flagrant violation of God’s revealed will which would bring down his terrible wrath. How strongly both sides felt appears in Paul’s account of the stormy conference at Jerusalem and the angry dispute that followed it at Antioch (2:1-14). Paul claimed that refusal to eat with a Gentile brother would deny that the grace of Christ was sufficient to make him worthy of the kingdom. If all men were sons of God through Christ, there could be no classes of Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female (3:26-28). What mattered was neither circumcision not uncircumcision, but only faith and a new act of creation by the Spirit (5:6; 6”15). (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 433)  
Church unity was essential to the success of Christian missions. Friction between Aramaic and Greek-speaking Jewish Christians in Palestine had to be eliminated (Acts 6:1). The death of Stephen and a special vision to Peter were required to convince the conservatives of the propriety of admitting the Gentiles on an equality with the Jews; and even Peter was amazed that God had given them the same gift of the Spirit (Act 11: 1-18). This hesitation was potentially fatal to the spread of Christianity beyond Palestine. Many Gentiles had been attracted by the pure monotheism and high morality of Judaism but were not willing to break with their native culture by submitting to the painful initiatory rite and social stigma of being a Jew…. Had the church kept circumcision as a requirement for membership, it could not have freed itself from Jewish nationalism.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 433)  
III. Some Characteristics of Paul’s Thinking  
… “the law” of which Paul is speaking does not coincide with “law” in a twentieth-century state with representative government. His Greek word was νομος [nomos], an inadequate translation of the Hebrew “Torah,” which included much more than “law” as we use the term. [When “תורה ThORaH” appears in the text I translate it as “Instruction” – its literal definition - capitalized.] Torah was teaching on any subject concerning the will of God as revealed in the Scriptures. Since the Jews did not divide life into two compartments labeled “religious” and “secular,” their law covered both their spiritual and their civil life. Nor did Paul and his fellow Jews think in terms of “nature” and the “natural law.” They believed that everything that happened was God’s doing, directly or by his permission. The messiah was expected to restore the ancient theocracy with its power over both civil and religious affairs.  
The Gentiles too were accustomed to state regulation of religion and priestly control of civil affairs. The Greek city-states had always managed the relations of their citizens with the gods, and Alexander the Great prepared the way for religious imperialism. When he invaded Asia, he consolidated his power by the ancient Oriental idea that the ruler was a god or a son of God. His successors, in their endless wars over the fragments of his empire, adopted the same device. Posing as “savior-gods,” they liberated their victims by enslaving them. The Romans did likewise, believing that the safety of their empire depended upon correct legal relations with the gods who had founded it. … Each city had its temple dedicated to the emperor, and its patriotic priests to see that everyone burned incense before his statue. Having done this, the worshiper was free under Roman ‘tolerance’ to adopt any other legal religion. … Whether salvation was offered in the name of the ancient gods of the Orient, or of Greece, or of the emperor of Rome, or of Yahweh the theocratic king of the Jews, the favor of the deity was thought to depend upon obedience to his law.  
One did not therefore have to be a Jew to be a legalist in religion. … Since Paul’s first converts were drawn from Gentiles who had been attending the synagogues, it is easy to see how Gentile Christians could be a zealous to add Moses to Christ as the most conservative Jew.  
This is what gave the Judaizers their hold in Galatia. The rivalry between the synagogue, which was engaged in winning men to worship the God of Moses, and the church, which was preaching the God who had revealed himself in Christ Jesus, was bound to raise the issue of legalism and stir up doubts about the sufficiency of Christ.  
Gentile and Jewish Christians alike would regard Paul’s preaching of salvation apart from the merit acquired by obedience to law as a violently revolutionary doctrine. Fidelity to his declaration of religious independence from all mediating rulers and priesthoods required a spiritual maturity of which most who heard his preaching were not yet capable. … Paul’s gospel has always been in danger of being stifled by those who would treat the teachings of Jesus as laws to be enforced by a hierarchy. (Stamm, TIB 1953, X pp. 434-435)  
V. Environment of Paul’s Churches in Galatia  
The conclusion concerning the destination of the epistle does not involve the essentials of its religious message, but it does affect our understanding of certain passages, such as 3:1 and 41:12, 20.  
From the earliest times that part of the world had been swept by the cross tides of migration and struggle for empire. The third millennium found the Hittites in possession. In the second millennium the Greeks and Phrygians came spilling over from Europe, and in the first millennium the remaining power of the Hittites was swept away by Babylon and Persia. Then came the turn of the Asiatic tide into Europe, only to be swept back again by Alexander the Great. But the Greek cities with which he and his successors dotted the map of Asia were like anthills destined to be leveled by Oriental reaction.  
About 278 B.C. new turmoil came with the Gauls, who were shunted from Greece and crossed into Asia to overrun Phrygia. Gradually the Greek kings succeeded in pushing them up into the central highlands, where they established themselves in the region of Ancyra. Thus located, they constituted a perpetually disturbing element, raiding the Greek cities and furnishing soldiers now to one, and now to another of the rival kings. Then in 121 B.C. came the Romans to 'set free' Galatia by making it a part of their own Empire. By 40 B.C. there were three kingdoms, with capitals at Ancyra, Pisidian Antioch, and Iconium. Four years later Lycaonia and Galatia were given to Amyntas the king of Pisidia. He added Pamphylia and part of Cilicia to his kingdom. But he was killed in 25 B.C., and the Romans made his dominion into the province of Galatia, which was thus much larger than the territory inhabited by the Gauls. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 437-438)  
War and slavery, poverty, disease, and famine made life hard and uncertain. In religion and philosophy men were confused by this meeting of East and West. But man’s extremity was Paul’s opportunity. The soil of the centuries had been plowed and harrowed for his new, revolutionary gospel of grace and freedom.  
Not all, however, were ready for this freedom. The old religions with prestige and authority seemed safer. Most Jews preferred Moses, and among the Gentiles the hold of the Great Mother Cybele of Phrygia was not easily shaken. Paul’s converts, bringing their former ideas and customs with them, were all too ready to reshape his gospel into a combination of Christ with their ancient laws and rituals. The old religions were especially tenacious in the small villages, whose inhabitants spoke the native languages and were inaccessible to the Greek-speaking Paul. To this gravitational attraction of the indigenous cults was added the more sophisticated syncretism of the city dwellers, pulling Paul’s churches away from his gospel when the moral demands of his faith and the responsibilities of his freedom became irksome. This was the root of the trouble in Galatia. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 438)  
VI. Date and Place of Writing  
Some consider it the earliest of Paul’s extant letters and place it in 49 … In support of this date it is said that Paul, who had come from Perga by boat, was met by messengers from Galatia, who had taken the shorter route by land. They reported the disturbance which had arisen in his churches soon after his departure. He could not go back immediately to straighten things out in person, because he saw that he would have to settle the matter first in Jerusalem, whence the troublemakers had come. So he wrote a letter.  
But … [w]e do not know that the trouble in Galatia was stirred up by emissaries from the church in Jerusalem … Moreover, this solution overlooks the crux of the issue between Paul and the legalists. His contention was that neither circumcision nor the observance of any other law was the basis of salvation, but only faith in God’s grace through Christ. … On the matter of kosher customs, as on every other question, he directed men to the mind and Spirit of Christ, and not to law, either Mosaic or apostolic. That mind was a Spirit of edification which abstained voluntarily from all that defiled or offended.  
We may say that the situation [in Galatia] was different – that in Macedonia it was persecution from outside by Jews who were trying to prevent Paul’s preaching, whereas in Galatia it was trouble inside the church created by legalistic Christians who were proposing to change his teaching; that in one case the issue was justification by faith, and in the other faithfulness while waiting for the day of the Lord.  
The letter to the Romans, written during the three months in Greece mentioned in Acts 20:2-3, is our earliest commentary on Galatians. In it the relation between the law and the gospel is set forth in the perspective of Paul’s further experience. The brevity and storminess of Galatians gives way to a more complete and calmly reasoned presentation of his gospel. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 438 - 439)  
At Corinth, as in Galatia, Paul had to defend his right to be an apostle against opponents heartless enough to turn against him the cruel belief that physical illness was a sign of God’s disfavor … and they charged him with being a crafty man-pleaser … He exhorts his converts to put away childish things and grow up in faith, hope and love…  
Most childish of all were the factions incipient in Galatia, and actual in Corinth … He abandoned the kosher customs and all other artificial distinctions between Jews and Gentiles and laid the emphasis where it belonged – upon the necessity for God’s people to establish and maintain a higher morality and spiritual life… He substituted a catholic spirit for partisan loyalties ... (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 440-441)  
VII. Authorship and Attestation  
If Paul wrote anything that goes under his name, it was Galatians, Romans, and the letters to Corinth. … F.C. Baur and his followers tried to show that the letters ascribed to Paul were the product of a second-century conflict between a Judaist party and the liberals in the church, and that they were written by Paulinists who used his name and authority to promote their own ideas.  
[But] the earliest mention of the epistle by name occurs in the canon of the Gnostic heretic Marcion (ca. [approximately] 144). He put it first in his list of ten letters of Paul. A generation later the orthodox Muratorian canon (ca. 185) listed it as the sixth of Paul’s letters. … While the first explicit reference to Galatians as a letter of Paul is as late as the middle of the second century … the authors of Ephesians and the Gospel of John knew it; and Polycarp in his letter to the Philippians quoted it. Revelation, I Peter, Hebrew, I Clement, and Ignatius show acquaintance with it; and there is evidence that the writer of the Epistle of James knew Galatians, as did the authors of II Peter and the Pastoral epistle, and Justin Martyr and Athenagoras. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 441-442)  
VIII. Text and Transmission  
Although the epistle was composed neither carelessly nor hastily, the anxiety and emotional stress under which Paul dictated his cascading thoughts have produced some involved and obscure sentences … and a number of abrupt transitions… These have been a standing invitation to scribal clarification. … Paul’s debate with his critics takes the form of a diatribe, which is characterized by quotations from past or anticipated objectors and rapid-fire answers to them. Paul did not use quotation marks, and this accounts for the difficulty in 2:14-15 of deciding where his speech to Peter ends. The numerous allusions to person and places, events and teachings, with which Paul assumed his readers to be acquainted, are another source of difficulty. All theses factors operated to produce the numerous variations in the text of Galatians." (Stamm, 1953, TIB p. 442)  
From Adam Clarke’s Commentaryi :  
"The authenticity of this epistle is ably vindicated by Dr. Paley: the principal part of his arguments I shall here introduce …  
'Section I.  
As Judea was the scene of the Christian history; as the author and preachers of Christianity were Jews; as the religion itself acknowledged and was founded upon the Jewish religion, in contra distinction to every other religion, then professed among mankind: it was not to be wondered at, that some its teachers should carry it out in the world rather as a sect and modification of Judaism, than as a separate original revelation; or that they should invite their proselytes to those observances in which they lived themselves. ... I … think that those pretensions of Judaism were much more likely to be insisted upon, whilst the Jews continued a nation, than after their fall and dispersion; while Jerusalem and the temple stood, than after the destruction brought upon them by the Roman arms, the fatal cessation of the sacrifice and the priesthood, the humiliating loss of their country, and, with it, of the great rites and symbols of their institution. It should seem, therefore, from the nature of the subject and the situation of the parties, that this controversy was carried on in the interval between the preaching of Christianity to the Gentiles, and the invasion of Titus: and that our present epistle ... must be referred to the same period.  
… the epistle supposes that certain designing adherents of the Jewish law had crept into the churches of Galatia; and had been endeavouring, and but too successfully, to persuade the Galatic converts, that they had been taught the new religion imperfectly, and at second hand; that the founder of their church himself possessed only an inferior and disputed commission, the seat of truth and authority being in the apostles and elders of Jerusalem; moreover, that whatever he might profess among them, he had himself, at other times and in other places, given way to the doctrine of circumcision. The epistle is unintelligible without supposing all this. (Clarke, 1831, vol. II p. 361)  
Section VII.  
This epistle goes farther than any of St. Paul’s epistles; for it avows in direct terms the supersession of the Jewish law, as an instrument of salvation, even to the Jews themselves. Not only were the Gentiles exempt from its authority, but even the Jews were no longer either to place any dependency upon it, or consider themselves as subject to it on a religious account. "Before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto faith which should afterward be revealed: wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith; but, after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster." (Chap. [chapter] iii. 23-25) This was undoubtedly spoken of Jews, and to Jews. … What then should be the conduct of a Jew (for such St. Paul was) who preached this doctrine? To be consistent with himself, either he would no longer comply, in his own person, with the directions of the law; or, if he did comply, it would be some other reason than any confidence which he placed in its efficacy, as a religious institution. (Clarke, 1831, vol. II pp. 366-367)  
Preface  
The religion of the ancient Galatae was extremely corrupt and superstitious: and they are said to have worshipped the mother of the gods, under the name of Agdistis; and to have offered human sacrifices of the prisoners they took in war.  
They are mentioned by historians as a tall and valiant people, who went nearly naked; and used for arms only a sword and buckler. The impetuosity of their attack is stated to have been irresistible…’” (Clarke, 1831, vol. II p. 369)  
From The New Jerome Biblical Commentaryii  
"Introduction  
The Galatai, originally an Indo-Aryan tribe of Asia, were related to the Celts or Gauls (“who in their own language are called Keltae, but in ours Galli”) ... About 279 BC some of them invaded the lower Danube area and Macedonia, descending even into the Gk [Greek] peninsula. After they were stopped by the Aetolians in 278, a remnant fled across the Hellespont into Asia Minor …  
Occasion and Purpose  
… He … stoutly maintained that the gospel he had preached, without the observance of the Mosaic practices, was the only correct view of Christianity … Gal [Galatians] thus became the first expose` of Paul’s teaching about justification by grace through faith apart from deeds prescribed by the law; it is Paul’s manifesto about Christian freedom.  
... Who were the agitators in Galatia? … they are best identified as Jewish Christians of Palestine, of an even stricter Jewish background than Peter, Paul, or James, or even of the ‘false brethren' (2:4) of Jerusalem, whom Paul had encountered there. (The account in Acts 15:5 would identify the latter as ‘believers who had belonged to the sect of the Pharisees.’) … The agitators in Galatia were Judaizers, who insisted not on the observance of the whole Mosaic law, but at least on circumcision and the observance of some other Jewish practices. Paul for this reason warned the Gentile Christians of Galatia that their fascination with ‘circumcision’ would oblige them to keep ‘the whole law’ (5:3). The agitators may have been syncretists of some sort: Christians of Jewish perhaps Essene, background, affected by some Anatolian influences. … (Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1990, TNJBC pp. 780-781)   END NOTES
i The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. The text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present Authorized Version. Including the marginal readings and parallel texts. With a Commentary and Critical Notes. Designed as a help to a better understanding of the sacred writings. By Adam Clarke, LL.D. F.S.A. M.R.I.A. With a complete alphabetical index. Royal Octavo Stereotype Edition. Vol. II. [Vol. VI together with the O.T.] New York, Published by J. Emory and B. Waugh, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, at the conference office, 13 Crosby-Street. J. Collord, Printer. 1831.  
ii The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Union Theological Seminary, New York; NY, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J. (emeritus) Catholic University of America, Washington, DC; Roland E. Murphy, O.Carm. (emeritus) The Divinity School, Duke University, Durham, NC, with a foreword by His Eminence Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini, S.J.; Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990  
  Chapter One  
…  
Tiding of [בשורת, BeSOoRahTh, Gospel] one
[verses 6-10]  
…  
…………………………………………  
How [כיצד, KaYTsahD] was [היה, HahYaH] Shah`OoL [“Lender”, Saul, Paul] to become a Sent Forth [Apostle]
[verses 11 to end of chapter]  
…  
Chapter Two  
Sending forth of Shah’OoL required upon hands of the Sent Forth
[verses 1-10]  
…  
…………………………………………  
The YeHOo-DeeYM [“YHVH-ites”, Judeans] and the nations, righteous from inside belief
[verses 11 to end of chapter]  
...
-16. And since [וכיון, VeKhayVahN] that know, we, that [כי, KeeY] the ’ahDahM [“man”, Adam] is not made righteous in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction [Torah, law],
rather in belief of the Anointed [המשיח, HahMahSheeY-ahH, the Messiah, the Christ] YayShOo`ah [“Savior”, Jesus],
believe, also we, in Anointed YayShOo`ah,
to sake we are made righteous from inside belief in Anointed,
and not in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction,
that yes, in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction is not made righteous any [כל, KahL] flesh.  
“As a Pharisee, Paul had been taught that works of law were deeds done in obedience to the Torah, contrasted with things done according to one’s own will. The object of this obedience was to render oneself acceptable to God – to ‘justify’ oneself. Having found this impossible, Paul reinforced the evidence from his own experience by Ps. [Psalm] 143:2, where the sinner prays God not to enter into judgment with him because in God’s sight no man living is righteous. Into this passage from the LXX [The Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible] Paul inserted ‘by works of law,’ and wrote σαρξ [sarx], ‘flesh,’ instead of ζων [zon], ‘one living.’ This quotation warns us against setting Paul’s salvation by grace over against Judaism in such a way as to obscure the fact that the Jews depended also upon God’s lovingkindness and tender mercies (I Kings 8:46; Job 10:14-15; 14:3-4; Prov. [Proverbs] 20:9; Eccl. [Ecclesiasticus] 7:20; Mal. [Malachi] 3:2; Dan. [Daniel] 9:18).” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 483)  
Justified is a metaphor from the law court. The Greek verb is δικαιοω [dikaioo], the noun δικαιοσουνη [dikaiosoune’], the adjective δικαιος [dikaios]. The common root is δικ [dik] as in δεικνυμι [deiknumi], ‘point out,’ ‘show.’ The words formed on this root point to a norm or standard to which persons and things must conform in order to be ‘right.’ The English ‘right’ expresses the same idea, being derived from the Anglo-Saxon ‘richt,’ which means ‘straight,’ not crooked, ‘upright,’ not oblique. The verb δικαιοω means ‘I think it right.’ A man is δικαιος, ‘right’ when he conforms to the standard of acceptable character and conduct, and δικαιοσυνη, ‘righteousness,’ ‘justice,’ is the state or quality of this conformity. In the LXX these Greek words translate a group of Hebrew words formed on the root צדק [TsehDehQ], and in Latin the corresponding terms are justifico, justus, and justificatio. In all four languages the common idea is the norm by which persons and things are to be tested. Thus in Hebrew a wall is ‘righteous’ when it conforms to the plumb line, a man when he does God’s will.  
From earliest boyhood Paul had tried to be righteous. But there came a terrible day when he said ‘I will covet’ to the law’s ‘Thou shalt not,’ and in that defiance he had fallen out of right relation to God and into the ‘wrath,’ where he ‘died’ spiritually… Thenceforth all his efforts, however strenuous, to get ‘right’ with God were thwarted by the weakness of his sinful human nature, the ‘flesh’ (σαρξ) [sarx]. That experience of futility led him to say that a man is not justified by works ‘of law.’” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 483)  
[Actually Paul changed his point of view as a result of his encounter with Jesus on the road to Damascus, not as a result of intellectual contemplation. His many failures hitherto had not led him to this conclusion. The description of Paul in the preceding paragraph is a fiction.]  
“In the eyes of the psalmists and rabbis this was blasphemously revolutionary. Resting on God’s covenant with Abraham, they held it axiomatic that the ‘righteous’ man who had conscientiously done his part deserved to be vindicated before a wicked world; otherwise God could not be righteous. … In Judaism God was thought of as forgiving only repentant sinners who followed their repentance with right living …  
The theological expression for this conception of salvation is ‘justification by faith.’ Unfortunately this Latin word does not make plain Paul’s underlying religious experience, which was a change of status through faith from a wrong to a ‘right’ relationship with God… It conceals from the English reader the fact that the Greek word also means ‘righteousness.’ … (observe the ASV [American Standard Version] mg. [marginal note], ‘accounted righteous’).  
But ‘reckoned’ and ‘accounted’ expose Paul’s thought to misinterpretation by suggesting a legal fiction which God adopted to escape the contradiction between his acceptance of sinners and his own righteousness and justice.  
On the other hand, Paul’s term, in the passive, cannot be translated by ‘made righteous’ without misrepresenting him. In baptism he had ‘died with Christ’ to sin. By this definition the Christian is a person who does not sin! And yet Paul does not say that he is sinless, but that he must not sin. … This laid him open to a charge of self contradiction; sinless and yet not sinless, righteous and unrighteous, just and unjust at the same time. Some interpreters have labeled it ‘paradox,’ but such a superficial dismissal of the problem is religiously barren and worse than useless.  
The extreme difficulty of understanding Paul on this matter has led to a distinction between ‘justification’ and ‘sanctification,’ which obscures Paul’s urgency to be now, at this very moment, what God in accepting him says he is: a righteous man in Christ Jesus. Justification is reduced to a forensic declaration by which God acquits and accepts the guilty criminal, and sanctification is viewed as a leisurely process of becoming the kind of person posited by that declaration. This makes perfection seem far less urgent than Paul conceived it, and permits the spiritual inertia of human nature to continue its habit of separating religion from ethics. To prevent this misunderstanding it is necessary to keep in mind the root meaning of ‘righteousness’ in δικαιοω and its cognates.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 484-485)  
-19. I died according to [לגבי, LeGahBaY] the Instruction, because of [בגלל, BeeGLahL] the Instruction, in order [כדי, KeDaY] that I will live to God.  
“… The Pharisees taught that the Torah was the life element of the Jews; all who obeyed would live, those who did not would die (Deut. [Deuteronomy] 30:11-20).” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 488-489)  
-20. With the Anointed I was crucified, and no more I live, rather the Anointed lives in me.
The life that I live now in flesh, I live them in the belief of Son [of] the Gods that loved me and delivered up [ומסר, OoMahÇahR] himself in my behalf [בעדי, Bah`ahDeeY].  
“The danger was that Paul’s Gentile converts might claim freedom in Christ but reject the cross-bearing that made it possible. Lacking the momentum of moral discipline under Moses, which prepared Paul to make right use of his freedom, they might imagine that his dying and rising with Christ was a magical way of immortalizing themselves by sacramental absorption of Christ’s divine substance in baptism and the Lord’s Supper. The church has always been tempted to take Paul’s crucifixion with Christ in a symbolic sense only, or as an experience at baptism which is sacramentally automatic. It has also been tempted to reduce Paul’s ‘faith’ to bare belief and assent to his doctrine, and to equate his ‘righteousness’ with a fictitious imputation by a Judge made lenient by Christ’s death.  
Against these caricatures of ‘justification by faith,’ Paul’s whole life and all his letters are a standing protest. He never allows us to forget that to be crucified with Christ is to share the motives, the purposes, and the way of life that led Jesus to the Cross; to take up vicariously the burden of the sins of others, forgiving and loving instead of condemning them; to make oneself the slave of every man; to create unity and harmony by reconciling man to God and man to his fellow men; to pray without ceasing ‘Thy will be done’; to consign one’s life to God, walking by faith where one cannot see; and finally to leave this earth with the prayer ‘Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.’  
… When Christ the Spirit came to live in Paul … Paul was guided at each step, in each new circumstance, to answer for himself the question: What would Jesus have me do? And the answer was always this: Rely solely on God’s grace through Christ, count others better than yourself, and make yourself everybody’s slave after the manner of the Son of God who loved you and gave himself for you.  
… The phrase εν σαρκι [en sarki] … means, lit. [literally], in the flesh. Someday – Paul hoped it would be soon – this would be changed into a body like that of the risen Christ, which belonged to the realm of Spirit.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 490-493)  
Christ lives in me: The perfection of Christian life is expressed here … it reshapes human beings anew, supplying them with a new principle of activity on the ontological1 level of their very beings.” (Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1990, TNJBC p. 785)  
-21. I do not nullify [מבטל, MeBahTayL] [את, ’ehTh (indicator of direct object; no English equivalent)] mercy [of] Gods;
is not if [it] is possible to become righteous upon hand of the Instruction, see, that the Anointed died to nothing [לשוא, LahShahVe’]?  
“It is not I, he says, who am nullifying the grace of God by abandoning the law which is his grace-gift to Israel, but those who insist on retaining that law in addition to the grace which he has now manifested in Christ.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 495)
  Footnotes   1 Ontological - relating to the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being  
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
submitted by bikingfencer to biblestudy [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 17:43 tubbyocharles VRAM or Boot+VGA light on motherboard (new build)

Troubleshooting Help:

Parts list (from Great Intel Build by PCPartPicker.com. The prices were a bit cheaper when purchased ~1 week ago)
PCPartPicker Part List
Type Item Price
CPU Intel Core i5-12400 2.5 GHz 6-Core Processor $173.00 @ Amazon
CPU Cooler Thermalright Peerless Assassin 66.17 CFM CPU Cooler $39.90 @ Amazon
Motherboard *ASRock B660M Pro RS Micro ATX LGA1700 Motherboard $94.99 @ Newegg
Memory *Silicon Power GAMING 16 GB (2 x 8 GB) DDR4-3200 CL16 Memory $29.97 @ Amazon
Storage MSI SPATIUM M450 1 TB M.2-2280 PCIe 4.0 X4 NVME Solid State Drive $37.99 @ Newegg
Video Card MSI MECH 2X OC Radeon RX 6700 XT 12 GB Video Card $453.42 @ Amazon
Case Phanteks Eclipse G360A ATX Mid Tower Case $84.99 @ Newegg
Power Supply Corsair CXM 750 W 80+ Bronze Certified Semi-modular ATX Power Supply $169.99 @ Amazon
Prices include shipping, taxes, rebates, and discounts
Total (before mail-in rebates) $1099.25
Mail-in rebates -$15.00
Total $1084.25
*Lowest price parts chosen from parametric criteria
Generated by PCPartPicker 2023-06-02 11:21 EDT-0400
Problem description
This is my first build. Any help would be appreciated - I've been trying to get this PC work work for a lot of hours now :(
There's two different problems (for both problems, the fans and some LED lights turn on).
The first is I get a DRAM light on the motherboard. This happens when I have 1 stick of Ram in the A2 spot (only works with 1 particular RAM stick - if I use the other in the A2, I get a different error). I've also tried changing the placement as per some people online, so I'll also get a DRAM light when I put 1 stick into B1 and the other stick into B2.
I also get the VGA and Boot lights turning on when using the other stick into the A2 spot, or when I use both sticks (A2 and B2 slots).
What I've done in attempt to diagnose or fix the problem.
From this link, I've tried the following:
submitted by tubbyocharles to buildapc [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 17:43 CryptographerOk2258 Weekly Pastel Update 6/2/23

Pastel Community Update (June 2, 2023)
The next generation NFT focused blockchain. Certifiable authenticity. Permanent storage. Negligible fees. Build, secure, and scale your Web3 ecosystem with Pastel.
The Pastel Team has been extremely busy with a number of major development updates, partnership rollouts, and product releases. Check back here each week for new developments
Check Pastel channels for:
Weekly community snapshots shared across our various channels.
🐾 Quarterly updates released via our newsletter.
☎️ Weekly community town halls / AMAs directly with the Pastel team. Come prepared with your questions, comments, and feedback!
📣 Monthly Twitter Spaces with u/doodlestone and u/panthony
Key Updates:
🚨Contests🚨
Our team has been busy developing, testing & refining innovative network features like the Monet 1.2 release & SmartMint upgrade. To celebrate these milestones, we're launching exciting community events for everyone to enjoy! Check out what's in store for May: More info to come this week. Check our socials!
SmartMint Art Contest
-Are you ready to unleash your artistic talents and make a splash in the world of crypto art? Look no further! We are excited to announce the SmartMint Art Contest.
-By participating in this contest, you stand a chance to win fantastic prizes of up to 150 USDT, free mints, and so much more! To learn more about the contest and how to participate check out this Medium Article. CONTEST EXTENTION: JUNE 7th
Quizzo Discord Referral Campaign
-Exciting news! Introducing our Referral Challenge for our Bi-Weekly Quizzos in our discord! You have the opportunity to invite up to 5 friends to join our Discord and take part in any one of the upcoming 4 Quizzos. Earn additional rewards: $5 USDT for each referred friend, with a maximum of $25!
Check out this Medium article to learn more!
-We're kicking off the month of May by introducing our Bi-Weekly Quiz competitions, Quizzos! Put your Pastel knowledge to the test, covering videos, articles, & tweets. Learn more about our project and show off your expertise. We will be airdropping the top 3 winners PSL!
-Like solving puzzles? Don’t miss our Monet 1.2 NFT Puzzle Event to kickoff the Monet Mainnet Release! We’re giving away exclusive Pastel NFT Puzzle Pieces with corresponding PSL airdrops to those who answer daily Q?s! 🚀 Keep an eye out for additional NFT, PSL, & USDT bonuses.
🚨Twitter Space on the Current State of Web3 and NFTs🚨
Tune in to our Twitter Spacewith @blueznft. We will be diving into all things NFTs, ecosystems, marketplaces, and more. Don't miss out on this insightful discussion! #NFTs #Marketplaces #TwitterSpace
Pastel Network joined WOMENverse to discuss tech features that support empowering men and women in web3
We hosted an incredible conversation about on-chain infrastructure, the current market, and more! Listen to our Twitter Space with @endaomentdotorg
🚨Final phase of Monet 1.2 Testnet Release is now live🚨
Monet 1.2 represents a critical milestone among several other planned releases for 2023. This release brings substantial enhancements to our Supernode infrastructure, major updates to Cascade (our permanent NFT data storage solution), and Sense (our duplicate detection technology).
Specific upgrades include:
-Integration of Supernode Storage Challenges to Cascade -Activation of Cascade’s Self-Healing capability -Activation of Supernode Health and State Challenges -Stabilization of Sense Protocol -Release of the OpenAPI Gateway
More details on the specific features of Monet 1.2 and upcoming plans for the Mainnet release available here
Are you curious about the latest Monet 1.2 Test Net release? We've got you covered! We hosted 2 AMAs, Reddit and Discord where we answered all your burning questions. If you have more, please reach out to us on any of our social media.
🚨Collaborations🚨
In case you missed it, listen to our Twitter Space with BearBrains.eth (@NateBear). We discuss his exciting drop/giveaway, Brightz, and his journey in the Space.
Check out our latest artist spotlight! This amazing piece entitled “Nostalgia” was minted on SmartMint by @thealvinboss
Exciting artist collaborations are on the horizon with: @IanSoi_ @K_JRobotsCo, @Numo_0 @abahassanart
We are always seeking talented artists to collaborate with, so please reach out to us on any social media platform. Let’s create something amazing together!
🚨Pastel Progress🚨
-Reddit AMA- Always excited to answer the community. If yout still have burning questions, please find us on one of our socials
-Partnership with Astar Network: Pastel Network is excited to announce that it will be working with @AstarNetwork, a layer1 parachain in the Polkadot ecosystem. Learn more on Medium.
SmartMint on Twitter: It is our great pleasure to announce that SmartMint will now have a Twitter presence. The SmartMint twitter account has officially launched.
-Addition of Status Page: We recently released a Status Page so you can monitor the performance of our infrastructure & services in real time. Check it out here!
-Wrapped PSL:Wrapped PSL or wPSL exists to transfer tokens across platforms. wPSL is available on Uniswap. Watch our video and learn more here
-Pastel Testnet Faucet Release: Our Testnet Faucet is now live. The launch of this independent network enables users to obtain LSP (Pastel Testnet Tokens) to experiment with and develop in the Pastel Testnet environment. This gives users the ability to experiment with Pastel features without having to spend valuable PSL on the mainnet.
Learn more about Pastel's Testnet Faucet.
-Becoming a Supernode Operator: Become a Supernode operator today & gain increased credibility in the validator community & earn exclusive rewards from the foundation, such as PSL or NFT airdrops, in addition to receiving Block & Transactional Rewards.
🚨Cascade Protocol🚨
Cascade has numerous concrete advantages over competing systems such as IPFS & Arweave, particularly when it comes to censorship resistance, data permanence & data accessibility.
Check out our technical paper on Cascade, Pastel's storage layer. Cascade is an extremely powerful & robust storage system for true data permanence that is both completely decentralized & highly scalable. Learn more here.
🚨Sense Protocol🚨
Sense is a Near-Duplicate NFT detection protocol powered by the Pastel Network. Assess the relative rareness of a given NFT against near-duplicate metadata on networks like Ethereum, Solana, etc to prevent prevalent scams or theft. Try it yourself here and watch it work here.
🚨2023 Roadmap and Review of 2022🚨
Pastel released its 2023 roadmap, including a review of 2022. Pastel Network 2022 in review and roadmap for 2023 shows great progress made in the previous year and much promise for the year ahead.
🚨News and Developments🚨
-Pastel in the News
💡Anthony Georgiades joins KitCo News to talk about how Bitcoin benefits as businesses lose trust in the dollar
🥝Check out what Anthony Georgiades has to say about the market in this The Block article.
😁Anthony Georgiades talks about a possible financial crisis in this CoinDesk article
⌨️Co-founder Anthony Georgiades discusses Solana and crypto smartphones in this Fortune article
⚓Check out this Cointelegraph article where Anthony Georgiades discusses the importance of filling a market gap.
-Pastel News-
📱Check out our latest Youtube live video where u/panthony discusses Q1 NFT Trends & Pastel updates!
🖌️ Listen to our Twitter space where we host @Endaoment and discuss chain infrastructures and more
🍧Check out this Twitter Space with the @agoric and @kryha_io teams discussing decentralized systems
🌸Check out this Twitter Space with u/gameofskills discussing Web3 gaming and much more
💡 Check out this Medium article on how Sense is revolutionizing NFT provenance written by Ima-Abasi Pius Joseph
-Pastel Archive
🚧We released a Builder’s Guide for ecosystem partners integrating w/ Pastel. Come build with us here.
🌯wPSL or wrapped is explained in this video and
🚧Pastel is completely open-source. Check out what we are working on here.
🌀Testnet tutorial video
🏆Learn more about Sense and Cascade
🔦Want to try out Sense for yourself? Upload your NFT here to obtain the rareness score of your NFT.
📹Check out this youtube demonstration showing what happened when we compared OpenSea’s new duplicate detection system to Sense Sense Comp Analysis
If you have not done so already, please take a moment to join our growing community base:
🐓 Follow Pastel on Twitter
🙉Follow Smartmint on Twitter
👾Join Pastel's Discord Server
👽Join Pastel on Reddit
✈️Join Pastel’s Telegram
🖥️Subscribe to our Youtube channel
submitted by CryptographerOk2258 to PastelNetworkOfficial [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 17:41 bikingfencer Galatians - introductions through chapter 2

Galatians  
The Gospel of Paul  
Paul can be forgiven for equating the destruction of Israel with the end of the world. Everyone who loves Israel wants to save her, the controversy between the Judaizers and Paul was over how to do it.  
From The Interpreters’ Bible:  
"Introduction  
-1. Occasion and Purpose  
Conservative preachers were persuading the Galatians that faith was not enough to make sure of God’s kingdom. Besides believing that Jesus was the Messiah, one must join the Jewish nation, observe the laws and customs of Moses, and refuse to eat with the Gentiles (2:11-14, 4:10). One must have Christ and Moses, faith and law. Paul insisted that it must be either Moses or Christ. (5:2-6). [Mind you, the congregations were literally segregated at meals according to whether the male members’ foreskins were circumcised; compare with the trouble regarding the allocations between the two groups of widows reported in Acts.]  
Not content with raising doubts concerning the sufficiency of Christ, the Judaizers attacked Paul’s credentials. They said that he had not been one of the original apostles, and that he was distorting the gospel which Peter and John and James the Lord’s brother were preaching. They declared that his proposal to abandon the law of Moses was contrary to the teaching of Jesus, and they insinuated that he had taken this radical step to please men with the specious promise of cheap admission to God’s kingdom (1:10). If he were allowed to have his way, men would believe and be baptized but keep on sinning, deluding themselves that the Christian sacraments would save them. Claiming to rise above Moses and the prophets, they would debase faith into magic, liberty into license, making Christ the abettor of sin (2:17). The Judaizers were alarmed lest Paul bring down God’s wrath and delay the kingdom. They had not shared the emotion of a catastrophic conversion like Paul’s, and they found it hard to understand when he talked about a new power which overcame sin and brought righteousness better than the best that the law could produce.  
Another party attacked Paul from the opposite side. Influenced by the pagan notion that religion transcends ethics and is separable from morality, they wanted to abandon the Old Testament and its prophetic insights. They could not see how Paul’s demand to crucify one’s old sinful nature and produce the fruit of the Spirit could be anything but a new form of slavery to law (2:19-20, 5:14, 2-24). They accused him of rebuilding the old legalism, and some said that he was still preaching circumcision (2:18; 5:11). Whereas the Judaizers rejected Paul’s gospel because they believed it contrary to the teaching of the original apostles, these antilegalists felt that he was so subservient to the apostles as to endanger the freedom of the Christian Movement.  
Actually Paul had risen above both legalism and sacramentarianism ... his faith was qualitatively different from mere assent to a creed (5:6). He was living on the plateau of the Spirit, where life was so free that men needed no law to say ‘Thou shalt’ and ‘Thou shalt not’ (5:22-24). But this rarefied atmosphere was hard to breathe, and neither side could understand him. The conservatives were watching for moral lapses… and the radicals blamed him for slowing the progress of Christianity by refusing to cut it loose from Judaism and its nationalistic religious imperialism.” (Stamm, TIB 1953, vol. X pp. 430)  
Paul’s defense of his gospel and apostleship was the more difficult because he had to maintain his right to go directly to Christ without the mediation of Peter and the rest, but had to do it in such a way as not to split the church and break the continuity of his gospel with the Old Testament and the apostolic traditions about Jesus and his teaching. …  
To this end Paul gave an account of his relations with the Jerusalem church during the seventeen years that followed his conversion (1:11-2:14). Instead of going to Jerusalem he went to Arabia, presumably to preach (1:17). After a time he returned to Damascus, and only three years later did he go to see Peter. Even then he stayed only fifteen days and saw no other apostle except James the Lord’s brother (1:18-20). Then he left for Syria and Cilicia, and not until another fourteen years had passed did he visit Jerusalem again. This time it was in response to a revelation from his Lord, and not to a summons by the authorities in the Hoy City.  
Paul emphasizes that neither visit implied an admission that his gospel needed the apostolic stamp to make it valid. His purpose was to get the apostles to treat the uncircumcised Gentile Christians as their equals in the church (2:2). Making a test case of Titus, he won his point (2:3-5). The apostles agreed that a Gentile could join the church by faith without first becoming a member of the synagogue by circumcision. … They … recognize[d] that his mission to the Gentiles was on the same footing as theirs to the Jews – only he was to remember the poor (2:7-10). So far was Paul from being subordinated that when Peter came to Antioch and wavered on eating with the Gentile Christians, Paul did not hesitate to rebuke him in public (2:11-14). (Stamm, 1953, TIB vol. X pp. 430-431)  
Paul’s defense of his apostolic commission involved the question: What is the seat of authority in religion? A Jewish rabbi debating the application of the kosher laws would quote the authority of Moses and the fathers in support of his view. Jewish tradition declared that God delivered the law to Moses, and Moses to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the men of the Great Synagogue, and that they had handed it down through an unbroken rabbinical succession to the present. If Paul had been a Christian rabbi, he could have treated the Sermon on the Mount as a new law from a new Sinai, which God had delivered to Jesus, and Jesus to Peter, and Peter to Paul, and Paul to Timothy and Titus, and so on through an unbroken apostolic succession until the second coming of Christ. Instead of taking his problems directly to this Lord in prayer, he would ask, ‘What does Peter say that Jesus did and said about it?’ And if Peter or the other apostles happened not to have a pronouncement from Jesus on a given subject, they would need to apply some other saying to his by reasoning from analogy. This would turn the gospel into a system of legalism, with casuistry for its guide, making Jesus a second Moses – a prophet who lived and died in a dim and distant past and left only a written code to guide the future. Jesus would not have been the living Lord, personally present in his church in every age as the daily companion of his members. That is why Paul insisted that Christ must not be confused or combined with Moses, but must be all in all.  
The Judaizers assumed that God had revealed to Moses all of his will, and nothing but this will, for all time, changeless and unchangeable; and that death was the penalty for tampering with it. The rest of the scriptures and the oral tradition which developed and applied them were believed to be implicit in the Pentateuch as an oak in an acorn. The first duty of the teacher was to transmit the Torah exactly as he had received it from the men of old. Only then might he give his own opinion, which must never contradict but always be validated by the authority of the past. When authorities differed, the teacher must labor to reconcile them. Elaborate rules of interpretation were devised to help decide cases not covered by specific provision in the scripture. These rules made it possible to apply a changeless revelation to changing conditions, but they also presented a dilemma. The interpreter might modernize by reading into his Bible ideas that were not in the minds of its writers, or he might quench his own creative insights by fearing to go beyond what was written. Those who modernized the Old Testament were beset with the perils of incipient Gnosticism, while those who, like the Sadducees, accepted nothing but the written Torah could misuse it to obstruct social and religious progress. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 431-432)  
To submit to circumcision would have betrayed the truth of the gospel because it contradicted the principle that all is of grace and grace is for all (2:5). Perpetuated in the church of Christ, the kosher code and other Jewish customs would have destroyed the fellowship. Few things could have hurt the feelings and heaped more indignity upon the Gentiles than the spiritual snobbery of refusing to eat with them.  
The tragedy of division was proportional to the sincerity of men’s scruples. The Jews were brought up to believe that eating with Gentiles was a flagrant violation of God’s revealed will which would bring down his terrible wrath. How strongly both sides felt appears in Paul’s account of the stormy conference at Jerusalem and the angry dispute that followed it at Antioch (2:1-14). Paul claimed that refusal to eat with a Gentile brother would deny that the grace of Christ was sufficient to make him worthy of the kingdom. If all men were sons of God through Christ, there could be no classes of Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female (3:26-28). What mattered was neither circumcision not uncircumcision, but only faith and a new act of creation by the Spirit (5:6; 6”15). (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 433)  
Church unity was essential to the success of Christian missions. Friction between Aramaic and Greek-speaking Jewish Christians in Palestine had to be eliminated (Acts 6:1). The death of Stephen and a special vision to Peter were required to convince the conservatives of the propriety of admitting the Gentiles on an equality with the Jews; and even Peter was amazed that God had given them the same gift of the Spirit (Act 11: 1-18). This hesitation was potentially fatal to the spread of Christianity beyond Palestine. Many Gentiles had been attracted by the pure monotheism and high morality of Judaism but were not willing to break with their native culture by submitting to the painful initiatory rite and social stigma of being a Jew…. Had the church kept circumcision as a requirement for membership, it could not have freed itself from Jewish nationalism.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 433)  
III. Some Characteristics of Paul’s Thinking  
… “the law” of which Paul is speaking does not coincide with “law” in a twentieth-century state with representative government. His Greek word was νομος [nomos], an inadequate translation of the Hebrew “Torah,” which included much more than “law” as we use the term. [When “תורה ThORaH” appears in the text I translate it as “Instruction” – its literal definition - capitalized.] Torah was teaching on any subject concerning the will of God as revealed in the Scriptures. Since the Jews did not divide life into two compartments labeled “religious” and “secular,” their law covered both their spiritual and their civil life. Nor did Paul and his fellow Jews think in terms of “nature” and the “natural law.” They believed that everything that happened was God’s doing, directly or by his permission. The messiah was expected to restore the ancient theocracy with its power over both civil and religious affairs.  
The Gentiles too were accustomed to state regulation of religion and priestly control of civil affairs. The Greek city-states had always managed the relations of their citizens with the gods, and Alexander the Great prepared the way for religious imperialism. When he invaded Asia, he consolidated his power by the ancient Oriental idea that the ruler was a god or a son of God. His successors, in their endless wars over the fragments of his empire, adopted the same device. Posing as “savior-gods,” they liberated their victims by enslaving them. The Romans did likewise, believing that the safety of their empire depended upon correct legal relations with the gods who had founded it. … Each city had its temple dedicated to the emperor, and its patriotic priests to see that everyone burned incense before his statue. Having done this, the worshiper was free under Roman ‘tolerance’ to adopt any other legal religion. … Whether salvation was offered in the name of the ancient gods of the Orient, or of Greece, or of the emperor of Rome, or of Yahweh the theocratic king of the Jews, the favor of the deity was thought to depend upon obedience to his law.  
One did not therefore have to be a Jew to be a legalist in religion. … Since Paul’s first converts were drawn from Gentiles who had been attending the synagogues, it is easy to see how Gentile Christians could be a zealous to add Moses to Christ as the most conservative Jew.  
This is what gave the Judaizers their hold in Galatia. The rivalry between the synagogue, which was engaged in winning men to worship the God of Moses, and the church, which was preaching the God who had revealed himself in Christ Jesus, was bound to raise the issue of legalism and stir up doubts about the sufficiency of Christ.  
Gentile and Jewish Christians alike would regard Paul’s preaching of salvation apart from the merit acquired by obedience to law as a violently revolutionary doctrine. Fidelity to his declaration of religious independence from all mediating rulers and priesthoods required a spiritual maturity of which most who heard his preaching were not yet capable. … Paul’s gospel has always been in danger of being stifled by those who would treat the teachings of Jesus as laws to be enforced by a hierarchy. (Stamm, TIB 1953, X pp. 434-435)  
V. Environment of Paul’s Churches in Galatia  
The conclusion concerning the destination of the epistle does not involve the essentials of its religious message, but it does affect our understanding of certain passages, such as 3:1 and 41:12, 20.  
From the earliest times that part of the world had been swept by the cross tides of migration and struggle for empire. The third millennium found the Hittites in possession. In the second millennium the Greeks and Phrygians came spilling over from Europe, and in the first millennium the remaining power of the Hittites was swept away by Babylon and Persia. Then came the turn of the Asiatic tide into Europe, only to be swept back again by Alexander the Great. But the Greek cities with which he and his successors dotted the map of Asia were like anthills destined to be leveled by Oriental reaction.  
About 278 B.C. new turmoil came with the Gauls, who were shunted from Greece and crossed into Asia to overrun Phrygia. Gradually the Greek kings succeeded in pushing them up into the central highlands, where they established themselves in the region of Ancyra. Thus located, they constituted a perpetually disturbing element, raiding the Greek cities and furnishing soldiers now to one, and now to another of the rival kings. Then in 121 B.C. came the Romans to 'set free' Galatia by making it a part of their own Empire. By 40 B.C. there were three kingdoms, with capitals at Ancyra, Pisidian Antioch, and Iconium. Four years later Lycaonia and Galatia were given to Amyntas the king of Pisidia. He added Pamphylia and part of Cilicia to his kingdom. But he was killed in 25 B.C., and the Romans made his dominion into the province of Galatia, which was thus much larger than the territory inhabited by the Gauls. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 437-438)  
War and slavery, poverty, disease, and famine made life hard and uncertain. In religion and philosophy men were confused by this meeting of East and West. But man’s extremity was Paul’s opportunity. The soil of the centuries had been plowed and harrowed for his new, revolutionary gospel of grace and freedom.  
Not all, however, were ready for this freedom. The old religions with prestige and authority seemed safer. Most Jews preferred Moses, and among the Gentiles the hold of the Great Mother Cybele of Phrygia was not easily shaken. Paul’s converts, bringing their former ideas and customs with them, were all too ready to reshape his gospel into a combination of Christ with their ancient laws and rituals. The old religions were especially tenacious in the small villages, whose inhabitants spoke the native languages and were inaccessible to the Greek-speaking Paul. To this gravitational attraction of the indigenous cults was added the more sophisticated syncretism of the city dwellers, pulling Paul’s churches away from his gospel when the moral demands of his faith and the responsibilities of his freedom became irksome. This was the root of the trouble in Galatia. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 438)  
VI. Date and Place of Writing  
Some consider it the earliest of Paul’s extant letters and place it in 49 … In support of this date it is said that Paul, who had come from Perga by boat, was met by messengers from Galatia, who had taken the shorter route by land. They reported the disturbance which had arisen in his churches soon after his departure. He could not go back immediately to straighten things out in person, because he saw that he would have to settle the matter first in Jerusalem, whence the troublemakers had come. So he wrote a letter.  
But … [w]e do not know that the trouble in Galatia was stirred up by emissaries from the church in Jerusalem … Moreover, this solution overlooks the crux of the issue between Paul and the legalists. His contention was that neither circumcision nor the observance of any other law was the basis of salvation, but only faith in God’s grace through Christ. … On the matter of kosher customs, as on every other question, he directed men to the mind and Spirit of Christ, and not to law, either Mosaic or apostolic. That mind was a Spirit of edification which abstained voluntarily from all that defiled or offended.  
We may say that the situation [in Galatia] was different – that in Macedonia it was persecution from outside by Jews who were trying to prevent Paul’s preaching, whereas in Galatia it was trouble inside the church created by legalistic Christians who were proposing to change his teaching; that in one case the issue was justification by faith, and in the other faithfulness while waiting for the day of the Lord.  
The letter to the Romans, written during the three months in Greece mentioned in Acts 20:2-3, is our earliest commentary on Galatians. In it the relation between the law and the gospel is set forth in the perspective of Paul’s further experience. The brevity and storminess of Galatians gives way to a more complete and calmly reasoned presentation of his gospel. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 438 - 439)  
At Corinth, as in Galatia, Paul had to defend his right to be an apostle against opponents heartless enough to turn against him the cruel belief that physical illness was a sign of God’s disfavor … and they charged him with being a crafty man-pleaser … He exhorts his converts to put away childish things and grow up in faith, hope and love…  
Most childish of all were the factions incipient in Galatia, and actual in Corinth … He abandoned the kosher customs and all other artificial distinctions between Jews and Gentiles and laid the emphasis where it belonged – upon the necessity for God’s people to establish and maintain a higher morality and spiritual life… He substituted a catholic spirit for partisan loyalties ... (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 440-441)  
VII. Authorship and Attestation  
If Paul wrote anything that goes under his name, it was Galatians, Romans, and the letters to Corinth. … F.C. Baur and his followers tried to show that the letters ascribed to Paul were the product of a second-century conflict between a Judaist party and the liberals in the church, and that they were written by Paulinists who used his name and authority to promote their own ideas.  
[But] the earliest mention of the epistle by name occurs in the canon of the Gnostic heretic Marcion (ca. [approximately] 144). He put it first in his list of ten letters of Paul. A generation later the orthodox Muratorian canon (ca. 185) listed it as the sixth of Paul’s letters. … While the first explicit reference to Galatians as a letter of Paul is as late as the middle of the second century … the authors of Ephesians and the Gospel of John knew it; and Polycarp in his letter to the Philippians quoted it. Revelation, I Peter, Hebrew, I Clement, and Ignatius show acquaintance with it; and there is evidence that the writer of the Epistle of James knew Galatians, as did the authors of II Peter and the Pastoral epistle, and Justin Martyr and Athenagoras. (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 441-442)  
VIII. Text and Transmission  
Although the epistle was composed neither carelessly nor hastily, the anxiety and emotional stress under which Paul dictated his cascading thoughts have produced some involved and obscure sentences … and a number of abrupt transitions… These have been a standing invitation to scribal clarification. … Paul’s debate with his critics takes the form of a diatribe, which is characterized by quotations from past or anticipated objectors and rapid-fire answers to them. Paul did not use quotation marks, and this accounts for the difficulty in 2:14-15 of deciding where his speech to Peter ends. The numerous allusions to person and places, events and teachings, with which Paul assumed his readers to be acquainted, are another source of difficulty. All theses factors operated to produce the numerous variations in the text of Galatians." (Stamm, 1953, TIB p. 442)  
From Adam Clarke’s Commentaryi :  
"The authenticity of this epistle is ably vindicated by Dr. Paley: the principal part of his arguments I shall here introduce …  
'Section I.  
As Judea was the scene of the Christian history; as the author and preachers of Christianity were Jews; as the religion itself acknowledged and was founded upon the Jewish religion, in contra distinction to every other religion, then professed among mankind: it was not to be wondered at, that some its teachers should carry it out in the world rather as a sect and modification of Judaism, than as a separate original revelation; or that they should invite their proselytes to those observances in which they lived themselves. ... I … think that those pretensions of Judaism were much more likely to be insisted upon, whilst the Jews continued a nation, than after their fall and dispersion; while Jerusalem and the temple stood, than after the destruction brought upon them by the Roman arms, the fatal cessation of the sacrifice and the priesthood, the humiliating loss of their country, and, with it, of the great rites and symbols of their institution. It should seem, therefore, from the nature of the subject and the situation of the parties, that this controversy was carried on in the interval between the preaching of Christianity to the Gentiles, and the invasion of Titus: and that our present epistle ... must be referred to the same period.  
… the epistle supposes that certain designing adherents of the Jewish law had crept into the churches of Galatia; and had been endeavouring, and but too successfully, to persuade the Galatic converts, that they had been taught the new religion imperfectly, and at second hand; that the founder of their church himself possessed only an inferior and disputed commission, the seat of truth and authority being in the apostles and elders of Jerusalem; moreover, that whatever he might profess among them, he had himself, at other times and in other places, given way to the doctrine of circumcision. The epistle is unintelligible without supposing all this. (Clarke, 1831, vol. II p. 361)  
Section VII.  
This epistle goes farther than any of St. Paul’s epistles; for it avows in direct terms the supersession of the Jewish law, as an instrument of salvation, even to the Jews themselves. Not only were the Gentiles exempt from its authority, but even the Jews were no longer either to place any dependency upon it, or consider themselves as subject to it on a religious account. "Before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto faith which should afterward be revealed: wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith; but, after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster." (Chap. [chapter] iii. 23-25) This was undoubtedly spoken of Jews, and to Jews. … What then should be the conduct of a Jew (for such St. Paul was) who preached this doctrine? To be consistent with himself, either he would no longer comply, in his own person, with the directions of the law; or, if he did comply, it would be some other reason than any confidence which he placed in its efficacy, as a religious institution. (Clarke, 1831, vol. II pp. 366-367)  
Preface  
The religion of the ancient Galatae was extremely corrupt and superstitious: and they are said to have worshipped the mother of the gods, under the name of Agdistis; and to have offered human sacrifices of the prisoners they took in war.  
They are mentioned by historians as a tall and valiant people, who went nearly naked; and used for arms only a sword and buckler. The impetuosity of their attack is stated to have been irresistible…’” (Clarke, 1831, vol. II p. 369)  
From The New Jerome Biblical Commentaryii  
"Introduction  
The Galatai, originally an Indo-Aryan tribe of Asia, were related to the Celts or Gauls (“who in their own language are called Keltae, but in ours Galli”) ... About 279 BC some of them invaded the lower Danube area and Macedonia, descending even into the Gk [Greek] peninsula. After they were stopped by the Aetolians in 278, a remnant fled across the Hellespont into Asia Minor …  
Occasion and Purpose  
… He … stoutly maintained that the gospel he had preached, without the observance of the Mosaic practices, was the only correct view of Christianity … Gal [Galatians] thus became the first expose` of Paul’s teaching about justification by grace through faith apart from deeds prescribed by the law; it is Paul’s manifesto about Christian freedom.  
... Who were the agitators in Galatia? … they are best identified as Jewish Christians of Palestine, of an even stricter Jewish background than Peter, Paul, or James, or even of the ‘false brethren' (2:4) of Jerusalem, whom Paul had encountered there. (The account in Acts 15:5 would identify the latter as ‘believers who had belonged to the sect of the Pharisees.’) … The agitators in Galatia were Judaizers, who insisted not on the observance of the whole Mosaic law, but at least on circumcision and the observance of some other Jewish practices. Paul for this reason warned the Gentile Christians of Galatia that their fascination with ‘circumcision’ would oblige them to keep ‘the whole law’ (5:3). The agitators may have been syncretists of some sort: Christians of Jewish perhaps Essene, background, affected by some Anatolian influences. … (Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1990, TNJBC pp. 780-781)   END NOTES
i The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. The text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present Authorized Version. Including the marginal readings and parallel texts. With a Commentary and Critical Notes. Designed as a help to a better understanding of the sacred writings. By Adam Clarke, LL.D. F.S.A. M.R.I.A. With a complete alphabetical index. Royal Octavo Stereotype Edition. Vol. II. [Vol. VI together with the O.T.] New York, Published by J. Emory and B. Waugh, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, at the conference office, 13 Crosby-Street. J. Collord, Printer. 1831.  
ii The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Union Theological Seminary, New York; NY, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, S.J. (emeritus) Catholic University of America, Washington, DC; Roland E. Murphy, O.Carm. (emeritus) The Divinity School, Duke University, Durham, NC, with a foreword by His Eminence Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini, S.J.; Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990  
  Chapter One  
…  
Tiding of [בשורת, BeSOoRahTh, Gospel] one
[verses 6-10]  
…  
…………………………………………  
How [כיצד, KaYTsahD] was [היה, HahYaH] Shah`OoL [“Lender”, Saul, Paul] to become a Sent Forth [Apostle]
[verses 11 to end of chapter]  
…  
Chapter Two  
Sending forth of Shah’OoL required upon hands of the Sent Forth
[verses 1-10]  
…  
…………………………………………  
The YeHOo-DeeYM [“YHVH-ites”, Judeans] and the nations, righteous from inside belief
[verses 11 to end of chapter]  
...
-16. And since [וכיון, VeKhayVahN] that know, we, that [כי, KeeY] the ’ahDahM [“man”, Adam] is not made righteous in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction [Torah, law],
rather in belief of the Anointed [המשיח, HahMahSheeY-ahH, the Messiah, the Christ] YayShOo`ah [“Savior”, Jesus],
believe, also we, in Anointed YayShOo`ah,
to sake we are made righteous from inside belief in Anointed,
and not in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction,
that yes, in realizing commandments [of] the Instruction is not made righteous any [כל, KahL] flesh.  
“As a Pharisee, Paul had been taught that works of law were deeds done in obedience to the Torah, contrasted with things done according to one’s own will. The object of this obedience was to render oneself acceptable to God – to ‘justify’ oneself. Having found this impossible, Paul reinforced the evidence from his own experience by Ps. [Psalm] 143:2, where the sinner prays God not to enter into judgment with him because in God’s sight no man living is righteous. Into this passage from the LXX [The Septuagint, the ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible] Paul inserted ‘by works of law,’ and wrote σαρξ [sarx], ‘flesh,’ instead of ζων [zon], ‘one living.’ This quotation warns us against setting Paul’s salvation by grace over against Judaism in such a way as to obscure the fact that the Jews depended also upon God’s lovingkindness and tender mercies (I Kings 8:46; Job 10:14-15; 14:3-4; Prov. [Proverbs] 20:9; Eccl. [Ecclesiasticus] 7:20; Mal. [Malachi] 3:2; Dan. [Daniel] 9:18).” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 483)  
Justified is a metaphor from the law court. The Greek verb is δικαιοω [dikaioo], the noun δικαιοσουνη [dikaiosoune’], the adjective δικαιος [dikaios]. The common root is δικ [dik] as in δεικνυμι [deiknumi], ‘point out,’ ‘show.’ The words formed on this root point to a norm or standard to which persons and things must conform in order to be ‘right.’ The English ‘right’ expresses the same idea, being derived from the Anglo-Saxon ‘richt,’ which means ‘straight,’ not crooked, ‘upright,’ not oblique. The verb δικαιοω means ‘I think it right.’ A man is δικαιος, ‘right’ when he conforms to the standard of acceptable character and conduct, and δικαιοσυνη, ‘righteousness,’ ‘justice,’ is the state or quality of this conformity. In the LXX these Greek words translate a group of Hebrew words formed on the root צדק [TsehDehQ], and in Latin the corresponding terms are justifico, justus, and justificatio. In all four languages the common idea is the norm by which persons and things are to be tested. Thus in Hebrew a wall is ‘righteous’ when it conforms to the plumb line, a man when he does God’s will.  
From earliest boyhood Paul had tried to be righteous. But there came a terrible day when he said ‘I will covet’ to the law’s ‘Thou shalt not,’ and in that defiance he had fallen out of right relation to God and into the ‘wrath,’ where he ‘died’ spiritually… Thenceforth all his efforts, however strenuous, to get ‘right’ with God were thwarted by the weakness of his sinful human nature, the ‘flesh’ (σαρξ) [sarx]. That experience of futility led him to say that a man is not justified by works ‘of law.’” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 483)  
[Actually Paul changed his point of view as a result of his encounter with Jesus on the road to Damascus, not as a result of intellectual contemplation. His many failures hitherto had not led him to this conclusion. The description of Paul in the preceding paragraph is a fiction.]  
“In the eyes of the psalmists and rabbis this was blasphemously revolutionary. Resting on God’s covenant with Abraham, they held it axiomatic that the ‘righteous’ man who had conscientiously done his part deserved to be vindicated before a wicked world; otherwise God could not be righteous. … In Judaism God was thought of as forgiving only repentant sinners who followed their repentance with right living …  
The theological expression for this conception of salvation is ‘justification by faith.’ Unfortunately this Latin word does not make plain Paul’s underlying religious experience, which was a change of status through faith from a wrong to a ‘right’ relationship with God… It conceals from the English reader the fact that the Greek word also means ‘righteousness.’ … (observe the ASV [American Standard Version] mg. [marginal note], ‘accounted righteous’).  
But ‘reckoned’ and ‘accounted’ expose Paul’s thought to misinterpretation by suggesting a legal fiction which God adopted to escape the contradiction between his acceptance of sinners and his own righteousness and justice.  
On the other hand, Paul’s term, in the passive, cannot be translated by ‘made righteous’ without misrepresenting him. In baptism he had ‘died with Christ’ to sin. By this definition the Christian is a person who does not sin! And yet Paul does not say that he is sinless, but that he must not sin. … This laid him open to a charge of self contradiction; sinless and yet not sinless, righteous and unrighteous, just and unjust at the same time. Some interpreters have labeled it ‘paradox,’ but such a superficial dismissal of the problem is religiously barren and worse than useless.  
The extreme difficulty of understanding Paul on this matter has led to a distinction between ‘justification’ and ‘sanctification,’ which obscures Paul’s urgency to be now, at this very moment, what God in accepting him says he is: a righteous man in Christ Jesus. Justification is reduced to a forensic declaration by which God acquits and accepts the guilty criminal, and sanctification is viewed as a leisurely process of becoming the kind of person posited by that declaration. This makes perfection seem far less urgent than Paul conceived it, and permits the spiritual inertia of human nature to continue its habit of separating religion from ethics. To prevent this misunderstanding it is necessary to keep in mind the root meaning of ‘righteousness’ in δικαιοω and its cognates.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 484-485)  
-19. I died according to [לגבי, LeGahBaY] the Instruction, because of [בגלל, BeeGLahL] the Instruction, in order [כדי, KeDaY] that I will live to God.  
“… The Pharisees taught that the Torah was the life element of the Jews; all who obeyed would live, those who did not would die (Deut. [Deuteronomy] 30:11-20).” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 488-489)  
-20. With the Anointed I was crucified, and no more I live, rather the Anointed lives in me.
The life that I live now in flesh, I live them in the belief of Son [of] the Gods that loved me and delivered up [ומסר, OoMahÇahR] himself in my behalf [בעדי, Bah`ahDeeY].  
“The danger was that Paul’s Gentile converts might claim freedom in Christ but reject the cross-bearing that made it possible. Lacking the momentum of moral discipline under Moses, which prepared Paul to make right use of his freedom, they might imagine that his dying and rising with Christ was a magical way of immortalizing themselves by sacramental absorption of Christ’s divine substance in baptism and the Lord’s Supper. The church has always been tempted to take Paul’s crucifixion with Christ in a symbolic sense only, or as an experience at baptism which is sacramentally automatic. It has also been tempted to reduce Paul’s ‘faith’ to bare belief and assent to his doctrine, and to equate his ‘righteousness’ with a fictitious imputation by a Judge made lenient by Christ’s death.  
Against these caricatures of ‘justification by faith,’ Paul’s whole life and all his letters are a standing protest. He never allows us to forget that to be crucified with Christ is to share the motives, the purposes, and the way of life that led Jesus to the Cross; to take up vicariously the burden of the sins of others, forgiving and loving instead of condemning them; to make oneself the slave of every man; to create unity and harmony by reconciling man to God and man to his fellow men; to pray without ceasing ‘Thy will be done’; to consign one’s life to God, walking by faith where one cannot see; and finally to leave this earth with the prayer ‘Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.’  
… When Christ the Spirit came to live in Paul … Paul was guided at each step, in each new circumstance, to answer for himself the question: What would Jesus have me do? And the answer was always this: Rely solely on God’s grace through Christ, count others better than yourself, and make yourself everybody’s slave after the manner of the Son of God who loved you and gave himself for you.  
… The phrase εν σαρκι [en sarki] … means, lit. [literally], in the flesh. Someday – Paul hoped it would be soon – this would be changed into a body like that of the risen Christ, which belonged to the realm of Spirit.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X pp. 490-493)  
Christ lives in me: The perfection of Christian life is expressed here … it reshapes human beings anew, supplying them with a new principle of activity on the ontological1 level of their very beings.” (Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1990, TNJBC p. 785)  
-21. I do not nullify [מבטל, MeBahTayL] [את, ’ehTh (indicator of direct object; no English equivalent)] mercy [of] Gods;
is not if [it] is possible to become righteous upon hand of the Instruction, see, that the Anointed died to nothing [לשוא, LahShahVe’]?  
“It is not I, he says, who am nullifying the grace of God by abandoning the law which is his grace-gift to Israel, but those who insist on retaining that law in addition to the grace which he has now manifested in Christ.” (Stamm, 1953, TIB X p. 495)
  Footnotes   1 Ontological - relating to the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being  
An Amateur's Journey Through the Bible
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2023.06.02 17:33 Exiled_From_Twitter Some More Historical Masters Data / Facts

Some More Historical Masters Data / Facts
Everyone loved my Tiger Woods / field strength post so much I thought I would post some other tidbits from it...
To quickly reiterate, the scores are relative to each round played in each individual year and then totaled. This includes all those who played at least 2 full rounds. For instance, in 1997 Tiger shot 270 total and won by 12 strokes, the average for all players who completed 4 rounds was 291, putting Tiger 21 shots better than average. However, by round Tiger was better by -6.1 in R1, -8.2 in R2, -7.2 in R3, and -4.2 in R4 for a total of -25.7 strokes better than all players who finished at least 2 rounds in that year.
So, what else should we look at?
**In 1998 Jack Nicklaus finished T-6th which was -10.7 strokes better than the average participant. He was 58 years old which is very likely the best "old man" result ever. The only one close is Mickelson in 2023, finishing T-2nd and -12 strokes better than average (at age 52). I'm still taking Nicklaus at 58 though. Also, only one player has ever won in their 25th Masters (or more), and that was Nicklaus in 1986.

Best \"old man\" performances
**Ian Woosnam's win in 1991 was the "worst" win in any Masters ever. It's only the 352nd best Masters result by the method above, at just -11.5 strokes better than average. With 87 Masters winners that means there were 265 losers at the Masters that finished better vs. their field than Woosnam did in 1991. Tiger's win in 2019 was the 2nd worst.

Red Border = Winner

**The greatest Masters performer without a green jacket is quite easily Lloyd Mangrum. He played in 19 Masters from 1940 to 1962 and finished at least 11 strokes better than the field in 10 of those. He subsequently finished in the Top 10 on 12 difference occasions. Mangrum accumulated 2.1 win shares which ranks 11th all-time, and 8th all-time in average strokes relative to the field. He has more win shares than 46 winners, and as many or more than 10 multiple time winners. He's the owner of 3 different top 100 Masters performances ever, but unfortunately he just kept getting pipped by some other greats like Demaret, Snead, Hogan, Hagen, etc. His average strength of field is one of the toughest for any top golfer.

Mangrum accumulated significant win shares without ever winning...

**Jack Nicklaus has 34 Masters events where he finished better than average (out of 44 played). Next closest is Sam Snead with 29 (of 40). Tiger currently sits at 21 of 24, with his only 3 worse than average being his 1st ever in 1996 and then the last 2 (2022 & 2023).

Jack played better than average in 34 Masters, including 33 of his first 34 attempts
**The greatest single round in Masters history was in 1955, Round 2, by Cary Middlecoff. He was 10.4 strokes better than average, shooting a 65 which was 3 clear of Hogan's 68. He went on to win, beating out Hogan, and finishing with the 3rd greatest total performance.

Rd 2, 1955, Cary Middlecoff shot a 65 with a total field average of 75.4. Best round ever.
**The greatest final round performance is actually Greg Norman in 1988, who famously choked in 1996. Norman fired a 64 which was -9 strokes relative to the field. Interestingly, Norman also has the greatest 1st round ever, in that same 1996 Masters in which he choked, and that is also the 2nd best round ever as well.

Norman had the best 4th round ever (1988), and one of the biggest 4th round chokes ever (1996)
**The worst final round from a contender came in 1983 from Jodie Mudd. He was in 4th through 3 rounds and just 2 strokes off the lead. He subsequently shot an 86, which was 11.7 strokes worse than average, and finished T42nd which was 18 strokes worse than eventual winner Seve Ballesteros. Wow.
**Chris DiMarco is the worst final round golfer of all golfers who otherwise have had really good Masters careers. In fact, his average relative to the field gets significantly worse with each round. His 1st round he's -6.6 strokes vs. the field, 2nd round it's -3.5 strokes, 3rd round it's -0.9, and finally in the last round he's 0.2 strokes worse than the field. His last round is 3.9 strokes worse than his first 3 rounds, the biggest gap of all good golfers. In 2001 he started the final round T-3rd, just 2 strokes behind Tiger, and finished T-10th and 8 strokes out of the lead. In 2004 he started the final round tied for the lead with Mickelson only to finish T6th and 7 strokes off the lead after a very poor showing.
**Of the 87 winners there have been 348 rounds, just 11 of those rounds were worse than average (3.2%) and none of them in the 1st round. The worst round a winner overcame was Nick Faldo's 3rd round in 1989, shooting a 77 that was 2.9 strokes worse than average for that day. Getting off to a good start seems pretty key.
**6 of 87 Masters winners were at least 5 strokes off the lead going into the final round. Nick Faldo is the only one who did it twice (5 strokes and 6 strokes). Jack Burke Jr. in 1956 came storming back from 8 strokes down vs. Ken Venturi (who had a 4 stroke lead vs. the next closest). Burke Jr. was -7.3 strokes better than average, shooting a 71 to Venturi's 80 to win.
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2023.06.02 17:23 RedditRocks2021 Free Cedar Point, Michigan Adventure, Kings Island Ticket with Red Cross Blood Drive Donation - IN, MI, OH - 2023 Season

Free Cedar Point, Michigan Adventure, Kings Island Ticket with Red Cross Blood Drive Donation - IN, MI, OH - 2023 Season
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*** PAGE UPDATED JUNE 01, 2023 - 06:29 AM **\*
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https://preview.redd.it/lrxn4d3bhm3b1.png?width=544&format=png&auto=webp&s=4f8c3defc1c5164a9d88572bb483916732c78ca0
The American Red Cross and Cedar Fair theme parks are joining together to encourage blood donations this summer, All those who come to donate at select blood drives will receive one free ticket, valid for entry to participating U.S. Cedar Fair parks as listed below, while supplies last. Ends August 01, 2023, Parking not included.
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The summer months are a crucial time for blood and platelet donations as donations tend to decline due to summer vacations and travel among regular donors,, The Red Cross is grateful to blood and platelet donors for coming together to support patients during this challenging time..
Register thru website listed below, Find the blood drive you want to attend, click link and enter the sponsor code: "cedarpoint" in MI or OH, Special code below for Indiana, For that blood drive and register online for an appointment. Blood Donor or person attempting to Donate Blood will receive One (1) Free Cedar Fair ticket available at any one of these Amusement Parks & Blood Drives (below) only. Free Ticket Voucher may be mailed, Due to limited tickets available at each location below. Advance Registration Required. Check back bi-weekly as we add more blood drives. You can donate blood once every 52 days. Did you know when you donate blood, you can save 3 lives. Be the difference, Donate blood and save 3 lives today! Thanks so much for your blood donation..
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RedditRocks2021's Story - I personally cannot give blood due to epilepsy, So I want to encourage others to donate blood at blood drives throughout the USA, As each person who donates a pint of blood will save 3 lives, Do a good deed and Feel good about yourself, Become someone's hero by donating blood and at the same time receive a free incentive such as: Free theme park ticket(s), Free Meals, Concert Tickets, Movie Tickets,T-Shirts, Free Gift Cards, Free Pint of Beer, Free Ice Cream, Free Pound of Coffee, Win Trips, Win 2 Year Car Lease, Win Sports Memoryibla and much more! One website I posted on received over 600,000 hits in one year and if each of those people donated blood then 1,800,000 lives have been saved. Be the difference, donate blood and save 3 lives today!
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Free Admission Voucher good at any of these Cedar Fair Parks:
Cedar Point – 1 Cedar Point Dr., Sandusky, Ohio
Cedar Point Shores – 1 Cedar Point Dr., Sandusky, Ohio
Carowinds – 14523 Carowinds Blvd., Charlotte, North Carolina
California’ s Great America – 4701 Great America Pkwy, Santa Clara, California
Dorney Park – 4000 Dorney Park Rd., Allentown, Pennsylvania
Kings Dominion – 16000 Theme Park Way, Doswell, Virginia
Kings Island – 6300 Kings Island Drive, Kings Island, Ohio
Knott’s Berry Farm – 8039 Beach Blvd., Buena Park, California
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Michigan’s Adventure -4750 Whitehall Rd., Muskegon, Michigan
Schlitterbahn Galveston – 2109 Gene Lucas Blvd, Galveston, Texas
Schlitterbahn New Braunfels – 400 N. Liberty Avenue, New Braunfels, Texas
Valleyfair – 1 Valleyfair Drive, Shakopee, Minnesota
Worlds of Fun – 4545 Worlds of Fun Avenue, Kansas City, Missouri
.
.
STATE OF INDIANA - 2023 Season - "SponsorCode" or Zipcode
05/26 - 12:30 PM - 06:00 PM - Church of the Nazarene, 1555 Flaxmill Road, Huntington - "hnaz"
05/27 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM - YMCA, 5736 Lee Rd., Indianapolis - "bhymca"
05/30 - 02:00 PM - 06:00 PM - DaySpring Church, 2305 N Indiana, Auburn - "daysprich"
06/01 - 10:00 AM - 03:00 PM - IU Health Tipton, 1000 S. Main St., Tipton, "iuhtipton"
06/01 - 08:00 AM - 01:00 PM - Culvert High School, 701 School St., Culver, "culverhs"
06/02 - 07:00 AM - 01:00 PM - Faith Family Church, 508 West Green St., Frankfort. "faithfamily"
06/04 - 11:00 AM - 04:00 PM - YMCA, 7900 Shelby St., Indianapolis. "baxterymca"
06/06 - 10:00 AM - 3:00 PM - Marion Public Library, 600 S. Washington, Marion. "marpublib"
06/06 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - JCC Indianapolis, 6701 Hoover Rd., Indianapolis. "jccindy"
06/08 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - First Church, 5387 W. State Rd. 10, Wheatfield,"firstwheat"
06/09 - 09:00 AM - 01:00 PM - Woodlawn Hospital 1400 E 9th St, Rochester "woodh"
06/09 - 12:00 PM - 05:00 PM - Columbus East High School, 230 S. Marr Rd., Columbus, 47201
06/14 - 12:00 PM - 05:00 PM - Manch[email protected] W State Road 114, North Manchester, "thecorner"
06/14 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Community Center 401 East Diamond St. Kendallville "46755"
06/14 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - United Methodist Church 13527 Leo Rd. Leo "46765"
06/15 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Chapel Hill Church, 2600 W. Alto Rd., Kokomo - "chaphill"
06/15 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM - Palko Services, 4991 West US Hwy 20, Michigan City, "palko"
06/16 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM - Skyline YMCA 838 South Harrison St, Fort Wayne " ymcafw "
06/21 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Fairhaven Baptist, 86 E. Oak Hill Rd., Chesterton, "fairbapch"
06/22 - 11:45 AM - 04:00 PM - Abundant Life Church, 105 S. Benton St., Peru, "abundant"
06/22 - 12:00 PM - 05:00 PM - Woodbridge Health, 602 Woodbridge Ave., Logansport, "woodlong"
06/22 - 11:00 AM - 04:00 PM - National Guard, 791 83rd Ave., Merrillville, "nationalguard"
06/26 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - First Baptist Church of Ossian 1001 Dehner Dr, Ossian " 46777"
06/27 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Zion Church 101 East North St. Columbia City "46725"
06/27 - 11:00 PM - 04:00 PM - YMCA, 2809 W. Purdue Ave., Muncie "ymcamuncie"
06/28 - 08:00 AM - 02:00 PM - Digger Specialties, 3965 E. Countyline Rd., Nappanee, "46506"
06/28 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - YMCA 5680 YMCA Park Dr West, Fort Wayne "46835"
06/29 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM - College Park Church 1936 College Ave, Huntington "46750"
06/29 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM - Plymouth Fire Dept. 111 N. Center St., Plymouth "plymouthfire"
06/30 - 12:30 PM - 05:30 PM - YMCA 10313 Aboite Center Rd, Fort Wayne "46804"
.
.
STATE OF MICHIGAN - 2023 Season - Sponsor Code: CEDARPOINT or Zip code
05/31 - 11:30 AM - 04:15 PM....United Methodist Church 203 Concord Rd, Jonesville
06/02 - 08:00 AM - 04:00 PM....Serra Whelan Chevrolet 40445 Van Dyke. Sterling Heights, 48313
06/02 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM....Pleasant Ridge Center 4 Ridge Rd. Pleasant Ridge, 48069
06/09 - 11:00 AM - 04:45 PM....Columbia Central High School 11775 Hewitt Rd, Brooklyn
06/21 - 12:00 PM - 05:45 PM....Chilson Hills Church 4440 Brighton Road Howell, 48843
06/22 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM....Oakland Church 5100 Adams Rd Rochester, 48306
06/26 - 11:00 AM - 03:45 PM....Napoleon Township 6755 Brooklyn Rd, Napoleon
06/27 - 10:00 AM - 03:45 PM.....West Rome Baptist Church 11984 Rome Rd, Manitou Beach
06/29 - 11:00 AM - 04:45 PM.....Goodwill Headquarters 1357 Division Street Adrian
07/05 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM.....St. Joseph Church 715 North Lapeer Rd. Orion, 48362
07/06 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM.....St. Joseph Church 715 North Lapeer Rd. Orion, 48362
07/06 - 01:00 PM - 05:45 PM.....First Baptist Church 131 E Main street North Adams
07/06 - 12:00 PM - 05:45 PM.....Free Methodist Church 2829 Park Drive, Jackson
07/07 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....St. Hubert Church 38775 Prentiss, Harrison Twnshp, 48045
07/11 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM....Redeemer Fellowship Church 5305 Evergreen Dr, Monroe
07/12 - 07:00 AM - 06:30 PM....Merriman Rd Church 2055 Merriman Rd, Garden City, 48135
07/13 - 07:00 AM - 06:30 PM....Merriman Rd Church 2055 Merriman Rd, Garden City, 48135
07/24 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM.....Oxford Meth. Church 790 South Lapeer Oxford, 48371
07/25 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM.....St. Andrews Church 1234 Inglewood Rochester, 48307
07/27 - 10:00 AM - 03:30 PM....Dundee Veterans Memorial 418 Dunham Dundee.
.
.
STATE OF OHIO - 2023 Season - Sponsor Code: CEDARPOINT or Zip code
05/26 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM.....Rocky River Civic Center 21016 Hilliard Blvd. Rocky River
05/30 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) 847 W. Maple St. Clyde
05/30 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM.....Cleveland Heights High 13263 Cedar Road, Cleveland Heights
05/31 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....Christ Community Chapel 750 West Streetsboro St. Hudson
06/01 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM....Youngstown Saxon Club 710 S Meridian Rd, Youngstown
06/06 - 08:00 AM - 03:00 PM.....Massillon Recreation Center 505 Erie Street North Massillon
06/07 - 11:00 AM - 06:00 PM......Avon Isle Park 37080 Detroit Road, Avon
06/07 - 08:00 AM - 02:00 PM......All American Drive at The Venues, 540 S. St Clair Street, Toledo
06/07 - 07:30 AM - 01:30 PM......Bryan High School 1000 W Fountain Grove Dr, Bryan
06/07 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Celina High School, 715 E. Wayne St., Celina, "celinahs"
06/08 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......All American Drive at The Venues, 540 S. St Clair St, Toledo
06/08 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Ashtabula Towne Square, 3315 N Ridge Rd E, Ashtabula
06/09 - 12:00 PM - 05:00 PM......Alida High School, 401 E. North St., Alida, "alidahs"
06/10 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM......Grace Church 7393 Pearl Rd Middleburg Heights
06/12 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Wickliffe Community Center 900 Worden Road Wickliffe
06/13 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Stonebridge Church 2111 Stonehedge Dr. Findlay
06/14 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......St Paul's Lutheran Church 2860 East Market St. Warren
06/15 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM......Sandusky Mall Rt. 250 Milan Rd. Sandusky
06/15 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM.......Wooster Community Hospital 1761 Beall Ave. Wooster
06/16 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM......Zenobia Shrine 8048 Broadstone Blvd. Perrysburg
06/20 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......Moose Lodge, 1146 N SR 53, Tiffin
06/21 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Sawmill Creek Resort 400 Sawmill Creek Dr., Huron
06/22 - 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM......North Ridgeville Library, 35700 Bainbridge Rd, North Ridgeville
06/23 - 09:00 AM - 06:00 PM......Mentor Civic Arena 8600 Munson Rd. Mentor
06/23 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......American Legion 500 Glenwood Napoleon
06/23 - 11:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Hilltop High School 1401 West Jackson Street West, Unity
06/28 - 07:00 AM - 07:00 PM......ABC6/FOX28 @ Makoy Center 5462 Center St, Hilliard
06/29 - 07:00 AM - 07:00 PM......ABC6/FOX28 @ Makoy Center 5462 Center St, Hilliard
06/29 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM......Medina Performing Center, 851 Weymouth Rd, Medina
06/30 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM.....Montpelier High School 1015 E. Brown Rd. Montpelier
07/03 - 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM.....Fairview/Gemini Center 21225 Lorain Road Fairview Park
07/05 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.....Packard Music Hall 1703 Mahoning Ave. Warren
07/05 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM......Wooster Community Hospital 1761 Beall Ave. Wooster
07/07 - 08:30 AM - 02:30 PM.......Hilton Garden Inn 6165 Levis Commons Blvd. Perrysburg
07/11 - 01:00 PM - 07:00 PM.......Hilton Garden Inn 700 Beta Drive Mayfield Village
07/13 - 12:00 PM - 06:00 PM......United Methodist Church, 130 W. Johnson St., Upper Sandusky
07/13 - 01:00 PM - 06:00 PM......United Methodist Church 170 Seminary St. Berea
07/13 - 10:00 AM - 04:00 PM......Teamsters Local 20 435 S. Hawley St Toledo
07/18 - 10:00 AM - 05:00 PM......Crocker Park 239 Market Street Westlake
07/26 - 09:30 AM - 07:00 PM......Cleveland Marriott East 26300 Harvard Rd. Warrensville Heights
07/27 -12:00 PM - 06:00 PM.......Elks 231 Buckeye Blvd. Port Clinton
07/31 - 09:00 AM - 03:00 PM......Community Center 6363 Selig Dr, Independence
08/01 -12:00 PM - 06:00 PM .......Cuyahoga County Library 5071 Wallings Rd, North Royalton
.
Additional blood drives added every week - Click here for updates
Red Cross First Time Donors Video
What happens to donated blood?
American Red Cross - Donate Blood Eligibility Requirements
submitted by RedditRocks2021 to FreeCedarPointTickets [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 17:10 OneWheelMan [H] €40 Paypal / Games [W] Diablo 4 (EU, can activate it myself)

All games are obtained by ME. If the game has a region lock, it will be locked to EU region.

Paypal F&F or G&S - fees on you. PRICES IN EURO

Lower rep goes first.

Googledocs https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1x939dac0XlG3tRhyYX_9Lf93usR0uqyVHPCYmB7RRys
Discount at purchase
5% @ €15-29
7% @ €30-59
10% @ €60+
12% @ €100+
15% @ €150+
Game F&F (€EU)
112 Operator 0.30
112 Operator 0.30
2064: Read Only Memories 0.60
7 Billion Humans 4.50
911 Operator 0.30
911 Operator 0.30
A Little Golf Journey 2.50
A Long Way Down 1.00
Aeterna Noctis 4.00
After The Fall 15.00
Agent in Depth 0.20
Aground 4.00
Alchemist's Castle 0.20
APICO 7.00
Arcade Paradise - Arcade Paradise EP 0.20
Arcade Spirits 0.20
Arise: A Simple Story 2.50
Arizona Sunshine 6.00
Armello 1.20
Aviary Attorney 0.20
AWAKE - Definitive Edition 0.20
Baba Is You 5.00
Back 4 Blood 9.00
Backbone 0.20
Baldur's Gate II: Enhanced Edition 2.00
Baldur's Gate II: Enhanced Edition 2.00
Baldur's Gate: Enhanced Edition 1.00
Baldur's Gate: Enhanced Edition 2.00
Baldur's Gate: Faces of Good and Evil 1.00
Baldur's Gate: Siege of Dragonspear 2.00
Batora: Lost Haven 2.00
BattleGroupVR 1.00
Bean Stalker 2.00
Beasts of Maravilla Island 2.00
Beat Hazard 3 6.00
Ben 10: Power Trip 1.50
Bionic Commando 0.20
Blade of Darkness 3.00
Blaston 1.00
Breathedge 2.50
Broken Age 0.20
Calico 0.20
Calico 0.20
Call of the Sea 1.00
Car Mechanic Simulator VR 1.50
Cats and the Other Lives 0.50
Cave Digger 2: Dig Harder 2.00
CHANGE: A Homeless Survival Experience 1.50
Chivalry: Medieval Warfare 1.50
Click and Slay 0.20
Cobra Kai: The Karate Kid Saga Continues 0.50
Combat Tested 1.00
Control Ultimate Edition 6.00
Cook-Out 1.00
Corridor Z 0.10
Crash Drive 2 1.00
Creaks 1.00
Cris Tales 0.50
Crying Suns 0.50
Cube Escape Collection 2.50
Dagon - The Eldritch Box DLC 0.10
Dark Deity 1.50
DARQ 1.00
Dear Esther: Landmark Edition -
Death and Taxes 2.50
Death Squared 0.20
Desolate 0.50
Detached: Non-VR Edition 0.50
Devil May Cry 5 + Vergil 6.00
Devil May Cry HD Collection 6.00
Disaster Band 3.00
DmC Devil May Cry 3.00
DOOM 64 1.00
DOOM VFR 3.00
Doughlings: Arcade 0.50
Doughlings: Invasion 0.20
Draw Slasher 0.10
Drawful 2 0.10
Dread Delusion 4.00
Dreamscaper 1.50
Driftland: The Magic Revival 0.10
Epistory - Typing Chronicles 0.80
Eternal Threads 3.50
Euro Truck Simulator 2 5.00
Evan's Remains 0.10
EXAPUNKS 1.00
Expeditions: Viking 1.50
Explosionade 0.20
Farming Simulator 17 2.00
Fast & Furious: Spy Racers Rise of SH1FT3R 1.50
Field of Glory II 1.00
Flynn: Son of Crimson 1.50
Forgive me Father 1.00
Forgotton Anne 7.00
Frick, Inc. 3.00
From Space 4.00
fsongs 0.20
Fury Unleashed 0.50
GameGuru Classic -
Gauntlet - Necromancer -
Gauntlet Slayer Edition + DLC Necromancer 1.50
Ghostrunner 5.00
Gift of Parthax 0.20
Gigantosaurus The Game 1.20
Go Home Dinosaurs! 0.20
Golf Gang 0.50
Gotham Knights 15.00
GRAVEN 5.00
Guilty Gear X2 #Reload 0.40
Guns & Fishes 0.20
Hack 'n' Slash + Soundtrack (& Spacebase GIFT) 0.20
Hacknet 0.50
Hamilton's Great Adventure 0.10
Harmony's Odyssey 0.50
Hellblade: Senua's Sacrifice 4.00
Homeworld Remastered Collection 1.00
Human Resource Machine 5.00
Hyper Gunsport 0.50
Hypnospace Outlaw 3.00
ibb & obb - Best Friends Forever Double Pack 2.00
Ice Age: Scrat's Nutty Adventure 4.50
Icewind Dale: Enhanced Edition 1.00
Impaler 1.50
Indivisible 2.00
Influent 2.50
Into the Pit 1.00
Into the Radius VR 7.00
Izmir: An Independence Simulator 0.20
Jumanji: The Video Game 1.50
Just Die Already 1.00
Killing Floor 2 Digital Deluxe Edition 4.00
King and Assassins 0.20
Kingdom Two Crowns 2.50
Labyrinthine 4.00
Lair of the Clockwork God 1.00
Lake 2.00
Last Resort Island 0.50
Learn Japanese To Survive - Hiragana Battle 0.40
Learn Japanese To Survive! Kanji Combat 0.40
Learn Japanese To Survive! Katakana War 0.40
Learning Factory 3.50
LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4 1.80
LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7 2.20
LEGO Jurassic World 1.50
LEGO MARVEL Super Heroes 1.50
LEGO MARVEL Super Heroes 2 1.50
LEGO MARVEL's Avengers 1.50
LEGO The Hobbit + 3 DLCs 2.50
LEGO The Hobbit DLC 1 - The Big Little Character Pack -
LEGO The Hobbit DLC 2 - Side Quest Character Pack -
LEGO The Hobbit DLC 3 - The Battle Pack -
LEGO The Lord of the Rings 2.50
Lighthouse Keeper 0.20
Little League World Series Baseball 2022 0.50
Little Orpheus 2.00
Loot River 3.00
Love Letter 0.20
Lust from Beyond: M Edition 0.50
Magicka 0.50
Maize 1.25
Marooners 0.20
Melody's Escape 2 0.70
Meow Express 0.40
Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor Game of the Year Edition 3.00
MirrorMoon EP 0.10
Monaco 0.50
Monument Valley 1.50
Monument Valley 2 1.50
Moon Hunters 0.20
Mordhau 5.00
Mortal Kombat 11 6.00
Mortal Shell 4.00
Mount & Blade: Warband 2.00
Murder by Numbers 0.50
MY LITTLE PONY: A Maretime Bay Adventure 10.00
Nanotale - Typing Chronicles 3.00
NecroWorm 0.20
Neverout 0.20
Neverwinter Nights: Dark Dreams of Furiae 2.50
Neverwinter Nights: Infinite Dungeons 1.00
Neverwinter Nights: Pirates of the Sword Coast 1.00
Neverwinter Nights: Tyrants of the Moonsea 1.50
Neverwinter Nights: Wyvern Crown of Cormyr 1.00
Neverwinter Nights: Darkness Over Daggerford 3.50
Neverwinter Nights: Enhanced Edition 3.50
Newt One 0.30
Nickelodeon All-Star Brawl 1.00
Nickelodeon Kart Racers 2: Grand Prix 0.50
Nightmare Reaper 6.00
No Straight Roads: Encore Edition 4.00
Non-Stop Raiders 0.50
Orbital Racer 0.10
Orbital Racer 0.10
Out of Reach: Treasure Royale 0.10
Pandemic: The Board Game + Mutation + Roles & Events 4.00
Pathfinder: Kingmaker 4.00
Patron 2.50
PAW Patrol The Movie: Adventure City Calls 2.50
PAYDAY 2 1.00
PAYDAY 2: F*ck Cancer - Big Mike Mask -
Perfect 0.50
Pikuniku 0.50
Pilgrims 0.30
Pill Baby 0.20
Pixplode 0.10
Pixross 0.20
Planescape: Torment: Enhanced Edition 1.50
Planet TD 0.20
PlateUp! 7.00
PLAYNE 5.00
Police Stories 1.00
Praey for the Gods 3.00
Princess Farmer 2.00
Project Arrhythmia 1.00
Project Chemistry 1.00
Propnight 2.00
Quadrata 1.50
Radio Commander 0.20
Railway Empire 1.00
Rayon Riddles - Rise of the Goblin King 1.00
Red Faction: Armageddon 0.50
Remnants of Naezith 0.30
Renowned Explorers: International Society 0.50
Rescue Party: Live! 1.50
Rise of the Slime 2.00
River City Girls 4.50
Roarr! Jurassic Edition 0.10
RPG Maker VX 0.20
RUMBLE 4.50
Rym 9000 0.10
Sable 1.50
Salt and Sanctuary 3.50
Sands of Aura 3.00
Say No! More 0.20
SCP: 5K 5.00
SHENZHEN I/O 2.50
Shing! -
Shooty Fruity 1.00
Slinger VR 0.10
Small World 2 + Be not Afraid + Cursed + Grand Dames 2.00
Songbringer 0.30
Songs of Iron 3.00
Soul Axiom Rebooted 2.00
Soul Searching 0.20
Soulblight 0.10
Soulflow 0.20
Soundfall 4.00
Space Crew: Legendary Edition 0.50
Splendor 1.50
Stacking 0.10
StarCrossed 0.30
State of Decay 2 9.00
Staxel 2.00
Steel Rats 0.20
Stick Fight: The Game 2.00
STONE 1.50
Strange Brigade 1.50
Strange Brigade 1.50
Street Fighter V 2.50
Strider 0.50
Stygian: Reign of the Old Ones 0.30
Sunlight 0.20
Superfly 0.20
SUPERHOT VR 7.00
Supraland Six Inches Under 5.00
Swords and Soldiers 2 Shawarmageddon 0.20
Syberia - The World Before 4.50
SYMMETRY 0.20
System Shock 2 0.40
System Shock: Enhanced Edition 0.40
Takelings House Party 0.50
Tales of the Neon Sea 1.00
Tannenberg 1.25
Teacup 0.50
Teacup 0.50
Telefrag VR 0.10
Terra Alia 2.50
The Almost Gone 1.00
The Amazing American Circus 0.10
The Amazing American Circus 0.10
The Anacrusis 0.50
The Blackout Club 2.00
The Citadel 2.50
THE GAME OF LIFE 2 5.00
The Hong Kong Massacre 2.00
The Inner World 0.30
The LEGO Movie - Videogame 1.00
The LEGO NINJAGO Movie Video Game 2.00
The Mortuary Assistant 7.00
The Smurfs - Mission Vileaf 6.00
The Textorcist: The Story of Ray Bibbia 0.50
The USB Stick Found in the Grass 0.10
The Wizards - Dark Times 2.00
Them and Us 2.00
Ticket to Ride 0.50
TIS-100 2.00
Titan Quest Anniversary Edition 3.00
ToeJam & Earl: Back in the Groove 0.10
Trombone Champ 8.00
Turbo Golf Racing 3.50
Ultra Street Fighter IV 1.50
Until You Fall 3.00
Vagante 1.20
Vault of the Void 5.00
Verdun 1.50
Vertigo Remastered 1.50
Visage 8.00
Wanderer 1.50
Warhammer 40,000: Gladius - Relics of War 2.00
Warhammer 40,000: Mechanicus 1.00
Warhammer: Vermintide 2 2.00
We are alright (Wszystko z nami w porządku) 0.10
West of Dead 0.30
while True: learn() 2.50
White Day: A Labyrinth Named School 1.75
Winkeltje The Little Shop 4.00
Worms Rumble 1.00
WRATH: Aeon of Ruin 1.00
Wytchwood 4.00
X-Morph: Defense Complete Pack 0.20
X-Morph: Defense Complete Pack 0.20
XEL 0.40
Yoku's Island Express 0.50
Yonder The Cloud Catcher Chronicles 3.00
You Can Kana 3.50
Zenith MMO 6.00
Zombie Army Trilogy 2.00
Zombie Driver HD Complete Edition 0.10
Barter
SGS flair
IGS flair
submitted by OneWheelMan to SteamGameSwap [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 16:58 Batterydude6000 Completely new newbie first pc

Hey guys,
This is my first pc ever. I've been looking into many different pc parts and finally picked on these. Feel free to let me know if I could have done better, but keep in mind I already bought them, so I can't really do anything about it if they're not the best.
CPU: Intel Core i5-12400F 2.5 GHz 6-Core Processor
CPU COOLER: Vetroo V5 52 CFM CPU Cooler
MB: Asus PRIME B660-PLUS D4 ATX LGA1700 Motherboard
RAM: Silicon Power GAMING 16 GB (2 x 8 GB) DDR4-3200 CL16 Memory
MEMORY: Seagate Barracuda Compute 2 TB 3.5" 7200 RPM Internal Hard Drive
AND Samsung 980 500 GB M.2-2280 PCIe 3.0 X4 NVME Solid State Drive
GPU: PNY GeForce RTX 3060 12GB XLR8 Gaming REVEL EPIC-X RGB Dual Fan Edition
CASE: Antec DF700 FLUX ATX Mid Tower Case
POWER: EVGA SuperNOVA 650 G5 650 W 80+ Gold Certified Fully Modular ATX Power Supply
MONITOR: Lenovo G24-10 24" (23.6" Viewable) 1920 x 1080 Full HD 1ms 144Hz G-Sync Compatible HDMI DisplayPort Tilt Gaming Monitor
WIFI: ASUS AC750 Dual Band PCIe WiFi Adapter (PCE-AC51) - Compatible with PCIe
About the wifi pcie adapter: I actually have really fast Wifi 6 at home, and didn't know this when I bought the wifi. Is there a drastic difference between this wifi card and the one I might buy? Here is the link: https://www.amazon.com/Ubit-Ubit-AX200/dp/B07Y2MYK4N/?th=1
I am planning to build this in a couple weeks. I am really confused by all the different cables and fan hubs and stuff, so it would be greatly appreciated if someone can help with that. It would be the greatest help if anyone could give me a list of all the necessary cables, asus motherboard drivers, and bios settings. Thanks!
submitted by Batterydude6000 to pcmasterrace [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 16:21 ResponsibleDouble8 Night wakings with sleep trained 6 month old

I sleep trained my now, six month old when she was four months old, using the Ferber method with great success. She was sleeping through the night 11 hours and puts herself to sleep for all naps. Over the last few weeks though things seem to have gotten off track a few nights a week she will wake for several hours in the middle of the night. I usually give her about 15 minutes to see if she’ll go back to sleep which she doesn’t. I go in gently sooth her and then give it another 15 minutes and she’s still wide awake crying. At this point, I’ll offer her a bottle which she sometimes takes sometimes refuses check her diaper and lately I’ve been giving her Tylenol thinking she may be teething. She usually goes back to sleep after 2 to 3 hours and it’s unclear to me if any of the things I did (soothing, bottle, Tylenol, diaper change) helped or if she just fell back asleep after what would be a full wake window. I’m not sure if she’s teething, she is definitely drooling and gnawing on things but her gums are not red or swollen and she’s not fussy during the day. Current wake windows: w/2.25/2.5/2.75. Total daytime sleep is usually 2.5 hr, 3 hr max, across 3 naps ( usually 1 hr 15 min, 45 min, 30 min). Thankfully naps are still going well, no trouble there. Any thoughts on how to improve the nights?
submitted by ResponsibleDouble8 to sleeptrain [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 16:10 PersonalityWarm9835 Clear Stadium Bag with Zipper

Clear Stadium Bag with Zipper
https://preview.redd.it/s67r6tj74m3b1.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=599eb7f008c1dfa66f23a1495890a27261cbaec7
Meets the 12x6x12 clear stadium bag guidelines for NFL games, College football games, CMA Festival, baseball games, PGA Tour, and other sporting events.
STADIUM BAGS FOR WOMEN AND MEN. Clear bags for football games! Great for use at stadiums, concerts or festivals. These clear stadium bags help expedite entry into events.
ADJUSTABLE SHOULDER STRAP from from 25" to 46"
DRINK BOTTLE HOLDERS. This clear travel bag has 2 convenient mesh side pockets to be able to use the bag as a clear concert bag, clear lunch box or instead of a clear tote bag.
EASY TO CLEAN. This transparent bag features a Zipper Closure to keep your items dry. The durable waterproof vinyl is easy to wipe clean of spills and dirt.
FOR CONCERTS, FOOTBALL GAMES FESTIVAL OR TRAVELING.
Dimensions: 12" W x 12" H x 6" D Front Pocket Measurements 6" H x 7 1/2" W x 1" D Two handles 22"
Learn More!
submitted by PersonalityWarm9835 to u/PersonalityWarm9835 [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 16:01 RandomHypnotica 00s Pop Punk Rate

Hello all-american rejects, mothers of Stacy and Hoobastankarinas! It is finally time to rate one of the subgenres of all time - pop punk! Welcome to the 00s Pop Punk Rate.

Introduction - What Is Pop Punk?

Pop punk is a genre that was invented by musical artist Machine Gun Kelly in the year 2020.
No but really, despite the sendup of it MGK contributed, the subgenre actually has a long and storied history dating back to the 1970s. One could argue bands such as The Ramones were essential foundations for the genre, if not themselves being a pop punk band. A reaction to the emergence of punk in the 70s, pop punk takes the energetic thrashings of punk music and overlays the sensibilities of pop song-crafting. Pop-punk saw an explosion of popularity in the late 90s with the rise of bands such as Blink-182, Green Day and The Offspring, and arguably hit its peak in the 00s with the creation of Van’s Warped Tour, a touring music festival that featured a lineup of some of the biggest pop-punk, post-punk and metal acts of the time. Alongside its rise, it would come to incorporate elements of ska, college rock, emo and post-punk.
Another element of pop-punk that differentiates it from punk is its lyrical focus. While punk’s focus tends to be heavily political and explicitly anti-authoritarian, pop-punk trades that topical focus for poppier subjects - love, lust, drunkenness, and how much the singers truly hate this town (worth mentioning that while this is in general true, especially of more mainstream pop punk acts, there are some notable exceptions).
In discussions of subgenres of punk, pop-punk tends to be largely ignored or snidely dismissed by both pop and punk communities but I think this is unfair. Yes, its lyrical subjects are often sophomoric and steeped in teen angst. Yes, the pop focus can cause the songs to feel derivative for some punk listeners. Yes, the culture surrounding pop punk has given us moments that are unintentionally hilarious. However, there is a reason this genre gained such attention - to borrow a phrase from pop, because it slaps. It takes pop music and thrashes it around. It fills the listener with nostalgic angst with power chord after power chord. It is an ode to the immaturity of youth. It is wildly influential; you can see pop-punk’s fingerprints in tons of modern genres - emo rap, hyperpop, and even Billboard-smashing pop songs.
Pop-punk is fun and raucous and a fantastic send-up to the teenage years many of us reminisce about. Today, it gets its due. Happy rating. - u/seanderlust
If you already know the drill because you're a regular rater, feel free to get rolling with the rate. Below are links to submit, a Pastebin ballot, and playlists for both Spotify and Apple Music:
Link to send in your scores
Pastebin Ballot
Spotify PlaylistApple Music Playlist

The songs

  1. The Academy Is... - About a Girl
  2. Alkaline Trio - Mercy Me
  3. The All-American Rejects - Swing, Swing
  4. The All-American Rejects - Dirty Little Secret
  5. The All-American Rejects - Move Along
  6. The All-American Rejects - Gives You Hell
  7. All Time Low - Dear Maria, Count Me In
  8. All Time Low - Weightless
  9. American Hi-Fi - Flavor of the Weak
  10. blink-182 - First Date
  11. blink-182 - The Rock Show
  12. blink-182 - Stay Together For The Kids
  13. blink-182 - Feeling This
  14. blink-182 - I Miss You
  15. Bowling For Soup - 1985
  16. Boys Like Girls - The Great Escape
  17. Boys Like Girls - Love Drunk
  18. Busted - Crashed The Wedding
  19. The Cab - One of THOSE Nights
  20. Cute Is What We Aim For - The Curse of Curves
  21. Dashboard Confessional - Hands Down
  22. Every Avenue - Tell Me I'm A Wreck
  23. Fountains Of Wayne - Stacy's Mom
  24. Good Charlotte - The Anthem
  25. Good Charlotte - Lifestyles of the Rich & Famous
  26. Good Charlotte - Girls & Boys
  27. Good Charlotte - I Just Wanna Live
  28. Good Charlotte - I Don't Wanna Be In Love (Dance Floor Anthem)
  29. Hoobastank - The Reason
  30. Jimmy Eat World - The Middle
  31. Jimmy Eat World - Sweetness
  32. Jimmy Eat World - Pain
  33. Lustra - Scotty Doesn't Know
  34. Marianas Trench - Cross My Heart
  35. Mayday Parade - Jamie All Over
  36. Mayday Parade - Jersey
  37. Motion City Soundtrack - My Favorite Accident
  38. Motion City Soundtrack - The Future Freaks Me Out
  39. Motion City Soundtrack - Everything is Alright
  40. New Found Glory - My Friends Over You
  41. Plain White T's - Hate (I Really Don't Like You)
  42. Plain White T's - Our Time Now
  43. The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus - Face Down
  44. Relient K - Be My Escape
  45. Short Stack - Sway Sway Baby!
  46. Simple Plan - I'm Just a Kid
  47. Simple Plan - Perfect
  48. Simple Plan - Welcome to My Life
  49. Something Corporate - I Woke Up In A Car
  50. Sugarcult - Memory
  51. Sum 41 - Fat Lip
  52. Sum 41 - In Too Deep
  53. Taking Back Sunday - MakeDamnSure
  54. Taking Back Sunday - Cute Without The 'E' (Cut From The Team)
  55. The Used - The Taste of Ink
  56. We The Kings - Check Yes, Juliet
  57. Yellowcard - Ocean Avenue
  58. Yellowcard - Only One
  59. Yellowcard - Rough Landing, Holly
  60. +44 - When Your Heart Stops Beating

BONUS

Okay, so.
The 00s pop punk era of course coincided with the rise of a number of other genres. Seeing an opportunity for a genre overlap in the interest of gaining fans from other genres, indie punk and metal label Fearless Records put out a series of compilation albums over the 00s and 10s. These CDs contained tracks of punk bands doing covers of pop, metal, and various other genres. They referred to it under the umbrella term Punk Goes… and featured such titles as Punk Goes Metal, Punk Goes 80s, and Punk Goes Crunk.
The most popular though, and the one that garnered the most subsequent albums was Punk Goes Pop. In this series, punk bands covered various pop songs that were popular at the time in punkier stylings. Think of it as Now That’s What I Call Music, but if all the songs were sung by Mayday Parade. It was an interesting idea and gained the involved punk bands attention outside of their core fanbase. I mean come on - pop?! AND punk??!! What is this, a crossover episode?
For our bonus rate, we will be rating a sample of tracks that were recorded for the Punk Goes… series. Some of these are quite good! Some of these are certainly pieces of music that musicians decided to record! But which is the best? That is for you, dear popheads, to decide.
  1. Yellowcard - Everywhere
  2. All Time Low - Umbrella
  3. Mayday Parade - When I Grow Up
  4. The Cab - Disturbia
  5. Artist Vs Poet - Bad Romance
  6. The Ready Set - Airplanes
  7. Go Radio - Rolling In The Deep
  8. The Downtown Fiction - Super Bass
  9. Seaway - Closer
To be clear: Rating these songs is optional. You can give a score to one of them, two of them, all nine, or any number in between. You cannot use your 0 or 11 on any of them.

Rules & Instructions

PLEASE READ THESE THOROUGHLY TO AVOID HAVING TO DEAL WITH ANY PROBLEMS WITH YOUR BALLOT LATER.

  • You must listen to and score every song in the main rate. Ballots with missing scores will not be accepted.
  • Your scores must be on a scale from 1 to 10 and can include one decimal place but no more. So 7.3 is fine, but 7.31 is not.
  • You may give one song in the whole rate a score of 11 and one other a score of 0, so if you want to award these scores, save them for your favourite and least favourite songs in the rate, respectively. You must leave a comment on the songs you give an 11 or a 0, and they must be songs from the main rate, not the bonus.
  • We encourage you to leave comments of your general thoughts or reasoning behind your scores on any songs you wish. If you choose to do so however, they must be in this format, simply leaving one space after your score:
```
One Of THOSE Nights: 3 They wanna be Juicy J feat. The Weeknd soooooo bad ```
Any other formats will get your ballot rejected. WRONG EXAMPLES:
```
I Woke Up In A Car: Yeah but did you wake up in a new Bugatti? (8) (WRONG!)
The Curse Of Curves: 7: me getting a D+ on my trigonometry homework (WRONG!)
```
  • Your ballot must be formatted exactly like the template in the message link, so make sure you use it, or the template in the backup pastebin, for your scores to be accepted.
  • Your scores are not confidential. They will be revealed, along with any comments, with your username attached.
  • DO NOT SABOTAGE the rate by giving outrageously low/high scores for the sole purpose of skewing the results, we reserve the right to exclude any ballot we suspect of this. If you're worried your scores could be mistakenly perceived as such, all you need to do is leave comments explaining the reasoning behind them.
  • If you want to change any of your scores or comments after you've already submitted your ballot, feel free to message myself or my cohost u/seanderlust before the submission deadline to sort it.
The rate is Due on July 15th, if you think you need a small extension please let one of the hosts know!

Finally, here are the links you'll need to start rating:

Submission Link

If there's a problem with it, here's the backup pastebin.

And the playlists of all the songs in the rate.

Enjoy!
submitted by RandomHypnotica to popheads [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 15:04 Gator588 Actionable Steps That are Helping Me

Hello All,
First off I want to say what you are going through is only temporary. It is easy to beat yourself up about it thinking it is weird, or stupid, but just know that you are not alone and there are many other irrational fears that millions of people struggle with every day. Having said that, I have found some relief recently and wanted to post on here in the hopes that it helps some of you.
My story of this phobia started two years ago where I felt like I couldn't swallow while I was eating steak at a restaurant. This instantly triggered a panic attack, fight or flight response that freaked me out. I swallowed the piece just fine, but I believe that experience triggered this phobia in my subconscious. This lead to two straight years of overthinking every meal I experienced. I will admit, my phobia never got so bad that I couldn't eat solid food, but I had to eat very slow, over chew everything, and overall just stressing about something that should typically bring you happiness. However, in just the last week I have found some relief, and with time I am hopeful that I will conquer this once and for all.
Now, we all wish there was a magic pill that could make this instantly go away. There are a lot of anxiety meds out there and they seem to help a lot of people. However, I believe that all these do is suppress the symptoms, instead of fixing the root cause. So that was my mission, to put in the work and find a way to identify the root cause of my fear and anxiety around eating. Here is a list of what I did:

  1. I listened to this podcast episode from Stanford Neuroscientist on Erasing Fear and Trauma. Here is the link if you are interested - Erasing Fears & Traumas Based on the Modern Neuroscience of Fear Huberman Lab Podcast #49 - YouTube
    1. One thing I took away from this and started doing is the Cyclic Hyperventilation. Where for 5 minutes every day for two weeks you purposely put yourself in a state of stress and anxiety. He explains it in detail in the podcast, but I am 8 days in and it is really helping. While I do this I think about eating scary things such as steak. If you try this make sure you follow his precautions that he mentions on the podcast.
  2. I listened to another podcast from Huberman (he is a wealth of knowledge on a variety of topics). Here is the link if you are interested - Dr. Chris Palmer: Diet & Nutrition for Mental Health Huberman Lab Podcast #99 - YouTube
    1. This is one of the most fascinated podcasts I have ever listened to. This guy has actually healed people with Schizophrenia through diet and nutrition. Because of this podcast I started doing the keto diet about 10 days ago. Wow! I can't believe how much better I feel and how better my mental health and attitude concerning food. Now, I know it may seem counterproductive since our phobia is around eating, but there are many soft foods that would be considered low carb or keto. Avocado, soft scrambled eggs, soft cheeses, and milk are some of my staples. If you can't eat any of those, you can always make shakes with full fat milk, almond milk, and a variety of other items to make a very healthy low carb meal replacement shake.
  3. Cold Showers
    1. Sounds crazy and woo woo, but there is actually a lot of science around the mental (and physical) benefits of cold showers. I have been doing this in conjunction with the cyclic hyperventilation, and I really think they are helping. You can even start with a warm shower, and then finish with the cold for about 60-90 seconds. That is all it takes to get the benefits. Look up the Wim Hof Method and you can learn more about this.
  4. Exercise
    1. You don't have to get a gym membership, just find something (walking, biking, swimming) that gets your body moving. Exercise has been shown to greatly improve mental health. I recommend some kind of light shoulder exercise and neck stretches to really help strengthen that area and help swallowing.
  5. Omega-3
    1. If you are on anxiety meds thats fine, but if not, Omega-3 supplements have been shown to provide an anti-depressant effect around the same level as an SSRI. You want to find a supplement that gives at least 2000mg of Omega 3. If you are interested, here is a link to what I have been taking for the last 10 days Amazon.com: OmegaWell Omega 3 Fish Oil - 2000mg Capsules: Heart, Brain, & Joint Support - 800 mg EPA 600 mg DHA - w/Natural Lemon Oil, Sustainably Sourced - Mini Softgels - 30 Day Supply : Health & Household
    2. If you can't swallow the pills, you can actually cut the tips off them and mix the oil in with a smoothie or water.
  6. Meditation/Yoga/Stretching
    1. I recommend a combination of these three. Find one that you like and try it out for a couple weeks. Focus on your breathing with any of these and they will help I guarantee it. There is an app called Plyability that use every night before bed. 10-20 minutes of stretching combined with breathwork and I feel amazing.
  7. Breathwork
    1. I like the app "Breathwrk." There are dozens of breathing exercises you can work on and practice for what you think will help you. What has helped me is doing the "Lung Capacity" exercise. It forces you to take slow breaths with a 20 second breath hold. It is meant to strengthen your diaphragm and increase lung capacity. I think this really helps with my eating because a lot of anxiety starts with your breath. If you can learn to control your breath and your mind while eating, it makes the whole experience much easier.
  8. Talk to someone
    1. Spouse, family, therapist, anybody. Find someone to talk to about this. I opened up to my wife about it (I was embarrassed for a whole to mention this to anyone and tried to hide it), and I have felt much better and much less weird or ashamed. So find someone that will understand and help you work through it, it makes a world of difference.
I know this seems like a lot, but remember as much as we want to snap our fingers and make this go away, thats just not going to happen. Sometimes it takes action. But that is the beauty in this! You don't have to rely on a drug or a doctor to fix this, YOU HAVE CONTROL OVER YOUR OWN MIND. And if you have the control, you have the ability to fix it. It might be hard and may take some time, but you have the power to fix this fear! Remember, it is HIGHLY HIGHLY HIGHLY unlikely that you will choke to death. The data is like 1.5/100,000 people choke to death. That includes babies, elderly people, and non-food choking deaths! Your body is hard wired to automatically chew and swallow, so this fear is just your brain getting in the way of what your body naturally knows what to do.
Hopefully some of this helps, feel free to reach out with any questions!
submitted by Gator588 to Pseudodysphagia [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 14:26 Spiritual_Shift_920 Guide to Dehaka - Tips, Tricks & Talents

Disclaimer. I am currently master ranked offlane player who has been playing the game since launch competitively & casually, on all ranks between gold and GM. I took a bit of a break after the last guides but upon several requests to continue making these, I was inspired to continue making them again. This particular guide got extremely long due to concerning a fairly complex hero and I like being thorough with my explanations. Links to other guides can be found at the end.

Dehaka is one of the ‘’big three’’ bruisers of high rank bruiser play (The unholy trinity of HoggeBlaze/Dehaka) and while other bruisers do also see play, its difficult to find a game where all of these 3 do not exist in either bans or picks. Dehaka, while not any weaker than the other two and situationally stronger, he does have a bit more counterplay to it than the others.

Drafting Dehaka

Synergistic heroes
Dehaka works really well with things that can quickly kill a drag target that often rely on short range. Some examples below;
Additionally, heroes that have high duration powerful AoE effects that Dehaka can reposition people into with his Drag and his level 4.
Heroes Dehaka can struggle into

Heroes Dehaka is good into

Just to be clear, there are not many heroes that like being dragged for 2.25 seconds into bad positions. There are some standouts regardless that he is extremely effective against.

Maps

To cut it short, what makes for a great Dehaka map:

S tier maps

Dragon Shire

So Dragon Shire is great for several reasons. The nature of the split objective is one such. The bottom shrine is positioned in such a way, where the only ‘safe’ way out of the shrine is usually by walking through a bush which is also known as the lizard territory. Another is the quantity of maps on the bottom side of the map that are relatively easy to invade for your team, and with burrow you can make it an easy 5v4. It has a lot of bushes for Dehaka to easily rotate and collect essence between lanes. Its great.The only downside for Dehaka on DS is that winning the shrine on top also matters quite a bit and while he is not bad in 1v1s, there are good amount of offlaners who can destroy him in a 1v1.

Cursed Hollow

Macro focus, siege giants, a lot of the same as in Dragon Shire. The objective does not split the team the same way as it does on DS but during curses having global is extremely valuable since your team can push very hard on a lane and threaten keep, while the quick rotation speed of Dehaka on sidelines means you are not losing xp and the global means your team isn’t left alone in a 4v5 if they commit everything to defending the push.

Towers of Doom
Might be, in my opinion, Dehaka’s strongest map. The presence of global enables a solid amount of invasion plays on enemy sapper camps, and the split objective means that every time an altar spawns on two other sides of the map, Dehaka will be there to make the objective fight 5v4 way before the global-less enemy offlane can do anything about it.

Sky Temple
Really, most of the things that can be fitted into DS can also be applied onto Sky Temple aswell. It is slightly worse on Sky because Dehaka struggles a bit on capping temples alone due to low single target damage and conditional sustain but his global is even more important since all structure damage matters on the map, and pushing out a lane can be just as valuable as getting an objective.

Garden of TerrorMostly he is awesome here. Lots of bushes, large size, macro heavy gameplay etc. You just want to make sure you have another hero in team who is effective at taking camps because Dehaka is not one, and camps are what often decide Garden games. At least he is very good at clearing the enemy camps.

A tier maps

Infernal Shrines
The map has lots of bushes, 3 lanes to soak and moderate macro relevance. One thing that makes Dehaka still a star on the map is his ability to drag shaman camps into towers to instantly clear them. Just because I took him lower than on some others doesn’t mean he isn’t great here, the reason I didn’t put him in S was mostly because he is not the most effective in clearing the extremely impactful objective alone, nor is he very good at dealing with it if enemy gets it.
Where Dehaka really sucks is when he has to fight on an open lane with no bushes, to defend against a punisher or such.

Tomb of the Spider Queen
Historically this is a bit controversial take due to the map’s small size. Which is true, it is against Dehaka’s global value. it doesn’t mean though it isn’t immensely relevant on the map, since it can be used to prevent the good old boss cap strategy of taking bot camp, and moving to boss as enemy has to deal with a siege camp.
Aside from that, due to its small size however Dehaka can stack essence extremely quickly, and the quantity of bushes makes him a danger everywhere on the map even without his global.
Dehaka is a very hard to gank offlane, which means gems collected by Dehaka are far more safe than on some other popular offlaners.

B tier maps

Battlefield of Eternity

Not the best map for him, but playable. The objective sucks the same way as it does on IS and it is more early game heavy. The distance between lanes makes essence management much more difficult.Things he does do well on the map though is defending shaman camps, which is more valuable here than any other map in my opinion. The middle of the map is also riddled with bushes, giving him a ton of opportunities to position properly and getting good drags in. The distance between lanes does also mean the bottom part of the team can play much more aggressively for camps since the global does threaten a constant 5v4.
Alterac Pass

I hate playing Dehaka on Alterac, but it could be worse. Little amount of bushes makes rotating extremely hard and dragging camps to towers is often of low value. Additionally, taking camps is of a high value and Dehaka really does not do it well on Alterac. The one thing Alterac has going for him is its large size, and the few bushes it has are around objectives so he can still sidepush and join for a fight.

Braxis Holdout
Dehaka typically isn’t awesome due to the difficulties of gaining essence, relevance of winning point on top lane and lack of siege giant/shamans. The bonus is, if you do win the point its fairly easy to win the bottom point aswell due to using global after bullying the enemy offlaner away from point.

D tier maps

Volskaya Industries

No bushes, small size, mostly item based camps. Unless Dehaka is the only hero you play, I’d not recommend picking him here.

Base Kit tips

Drag [Q]
Mercs

As I eluded earlier, you don’t have to be the one to deal the actual damage to mercs. You can also drag them into towers and forts for a faster clear. The damage of the drag isn’t high, 160 at a base (159% of one AA), but it is big enough that if you know you are going to base to get mana or you won’t be needing it any time soon, using drag for damage on PvE does increase your clear speed. It is mana intensive, which is why I excluded its use to the two scenarios above.

Landing drags on heroes
Dark Swarm

Burrow [E]
Essence Collection [D]

Brushstalker [Z]
Talents / Builds breakdown

To start off, different builds have different values on different levels of play. The build I pick most of the time is immensely powerful in diamond, master and GM SL aswell as competitive. It is equally powerful in lower ones, but some other builds also become better there (Such as the W build). The % mentions are just my rough estimates on how often I pick a certain talent.

The builds:

Standard/Recommended build: 3/1/1/1/1/2/1

BeginneLow SL build:1/3/3/2/2/2

Situational Braxis/Alterac build: 2/X/X/1/3/2/1

Level 1

Enduring Swarm - 2%

Enhance Agility - 96%
Tissue Regeneration - 2%
Level 4
Lurker Strain - 95%
Hero Stalker - 3%

One-Who-Collects - 2%

Level 7

Feeding Frenzy - 98%

Symbiosis - 2%

Paralyzing Enzymes - 0%


Level 10

Isolation - 100%

Adaptation - 0%


Level 13
Ferocious Stalker - 93%
Primal Swarm - 4 %
Primal Rage - 3%

Level 16

Elongated Tongue - 0%
Pack Leader - 0%

Tunneling Claws - 100%
Level 20

Contagion - 99%
Change is Survival - 0%
Essence Claws - 1%
Apex Predator - 0%


Laning tips

Do note that these estimations expect two equally skilled players, and playing with the talents listed above. Most of them do not directly improve the 1v1, so experiences may vary.Favored match ups
Fairly even match ups
Unfavored match ups
Thrall
Imperius
Illidan

—--
Leoric
Artanis
Yrel
Sonya
—------

Murky

As per usual, hopefully someone got something out of this. It has been a while since I written my last write up on bruisers. If there are any other particular bruisers people would want to see me make a write up on, do mention it. (I had to repost this due to reddit markdown acting stupid).
submitted by Spiritual_Shift_920 to heroesofthestorm [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 14:18 SystemSpark [USA] [H] TotK CE, Bomberman 64 2, Boktai 2, .Hack Quaratine, Kid Dracula, Wild Guns, River City Girls, Valkyrie Profile, Power Stone, Faria, Switch/Wii/WiiU/PSP/PS1/PS2/PS3/PS4/PS5/DS/3DS/GBA/GB/NES/SNES/N64/NGC/Genesis/Saturn Games, amiibo, Controllers, Joy-Con,Nintendo Swag [W] Paypal F&F

Prices are subjective, negotiable, and do not include shipping.   Photos upon request
 
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Jak and Daxter 10 Greatest Hits, Used, Disc and Case
Marvel vs Capcom 2 60 Cracked Disc, won't boot for me. Comes with case, no manual
Metal Gear Solid 2 Sons of Liberty 10 Greatest Hits, Used, Disc and Case
Naruto Ultimate Ninja 2 10 Disc and Case
Need for Speed Underground 10 Greatest Hits, Used, Disc and Case
Need for Speed Hot Pursuit 2 10 Greatest Hits, Used, Disc and Case
Resident Evil Dead Aim 50 Game and Case, No manual
Scarface 40 Complete; Greatest Hits
Star Wars Battlefront II 10 Disc and Case
Tekken Tag Tournament 10 Disc and Case; Greatest Hits
 
PS3 Price Condition
Castlevania Lord of Shadow Collection 30 Loose
 
PS4 Price Condition
APEX Construct 15 Sealed
 
PS5 Price Condition
Battlefield 2042 20 Complete in Box
 
XBOX One Price Condition
Watchdogs 15 Sealed
 
Consoles Price Condition
Monster Hunter Rise Edition Switch 420 New in Box (No game code)
Playstation 2 w/FreeMcBoot 80 Original PS2 "Fat" system. Won't read PS1 or blue PS2 discs. Laser could be ready to go bad, or just need re-alignment. Comes with a Yellow PS2 Memory Card that has FreeMcBoot on it. Free McBoot will allow you to to play games off of a hard drive if desired. No cords/controllers included.
Pokemon Scarlet/Violet Edition OLED Switch 400 New In Box
Sega Dreamcast 120 Includes Deck, 1 Controller, Power Cable, and AV Cable
SNES Jr. 120 Includes Deck, RF Coax Cable, Third Party AC Adapter, and Third Party Controller. Small crack on the corner.
Splatoon 3 Edition OLED Switch 400
 
Controllers Price Condition
Fortnite Joy-Con Set 120 Comes from the Fortnite Edition Console, never used
Joy-Con Grip 8 Bagged/Unused - Came with console
Oculus Quest 1/Rift S Left Controller 115 Used but very good condition. Comes with silicon case
Oculus Quest 1/Rift S Right Controller 115 Used but very good condition. Comes with silicon case
Platinum Gamecube Controller 20 Third Party, no nintendo logo, wired, good condition
Joy-Con (Left/Gray) 35 Good, no drift
Joy-Con (Right/Neon Red) 35 Good, no drift, Factory refurbished
SNES Controller 10 Third Party, no nintendo logo
SPIN Z WiiU Pro Controller 25 Black, Near Mint
SPIN Z WiiU Pro Controller 25 Black, Near Mint
 
Misc. Price Condition
3D Printed Question Block Switch Cart Case 12 Holds 6 switch carts and 6 Micro SD Cards
Black MagicGate 8MB PS2 Memory Card 20 Has Free McBoot loaded onto the card
Blue MagicGate 8MB PS2 Memory Card 20 Has Free McBoot loaded onto the card
Yellow Nyko MagicGate 8MB PS2 Memory Card 20 Has Free McBoot loaded onto the card
Super Smash Bros Ultimate Nintendo Switch ConsoleBox Only 90 Empty Box, good condition
Animal Crossing Nintendo Switch Console Box Only 20 Empty Box, good condition
Pokemon Dialga & Palkia Switch Lite Box Only 30 Empty Box, good condition
Fortnite Nintendo Switch Console Box Only 20 Empty Box, good condition
The Art of Splatoon 2 300 Sealed
Kid Icarus Uprising Players Guide (Imported, no AR cards) 30 Shows a little wear
Nintendo Switch AC Adapter 20 Gently used
Super Smash Bros. Ultimate Pre-Order Coin 15 Sealed
Breath of the Wild Sheikah Coin 25 From BotW Special Edition, Good condition
Pokken Art Cel Pre-Order Bonus 7 Sealed
Blastoise New 3DS Plates 150 Plates are mint and unused
Nintendo 3DS Stand 30 OEM, Came with Kid Icarus Uprising
Kid Icarus AR Card Set (205/404) 600 Contains 205 different US cards, no duplicates. This is roughly half the entire set. An itemized list can be provided upon request.
Kid Icarus AR - Pit Rally Cry Sealed Pack 20 Sealed pack of cards that contains AKDE-403,014,086
Shantae Risky's Revenge 2 LP Soundtrack Vinyl 55 Sealed
 
Cases Price Condition
Dot Hack (.HACK) Infection 20 Case & Manual
Dot Hack (.HACK) Mutation 20 Case only
Dot Hack (.HACK) Outbreak 30 Case & Manual
The Legend of Zelda Tears of the Kingdom 150 Includes everything but the game
God of War Chains of Olympus 15 Case and Manual Only
 
Freebies Price Condition
Gold Game & Watch Stand Free with purchase Gold Game & Watch stand meant for the 35th Anniversary Edition Zelda G&W, but likely works with others.
Playstation 2 IDE Connector Free with purchase Upgraded my HD Adapter to SATA, these are the old/leftover connectors.
Leapster Games Free with purchase
 
submitted by SystemSpark to GameSale [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 11:00 RedsModerator Game Day Thread - Friday, June 02

Brewers @ Reds - 05:10 PM EDT

Game Status: Pre-Game

Links & Info

Probable Pitcher (Season Stats) Report
Brewers Corbin Burnes (4-4, 3.68 ERA, 63.2 IP) No report posted.
Reds Brandon Williamson (0-0, 5.02 ERA, 14.1 IP) No report posted.
Reds Lineup vs. Burnes AVG OPS AB HR RBI K
1 Newman - 1B .143 .325 21 0 1 4
2 McLain - SS - - - - - -
3 India - 2B .200 .629 5 0 0 2
4 Fraley - RF .000 .000 3 0 0 2
5 Stephenson, T - DH .000 .000 1 0 0 1
6 Senzel - 3B .500 1.667 2 0 0 1
7 Fairchild - CF .500 1.167 2 0 0 0
8 Benson - LF - - - - - -
9 Maile - C - - - - - -
10 Williamson - P - - - - - -
NLC Rank Team W L GB (E#) WC Rank WC GB (E#)
1 Milwaukee Brewers 29 27 - (-) - - (-)
2 Pittsburgh Pirates 28 27 0.5 (107) 4 - (-)
3 Cincinnati Reds 26 30 3.0 (104) 7 2.5 (103)
4 St. Louis Cardinals 25 32 4.5 (102) 10 4.0 (101)
5 Chicago Cubs 24 31 4.5 (103) 11 4.0 (102)

Division Scoreboard

STL @ PIT 07:05 PM EDT
CHC @ SD 09:40 PM EDT
Last Updated: 06/02/2023 01:16:20 PM EDT, Update Interval: 5 Minutes
submitted by RedsModerator to Reds [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 10:35 KurogamiKazuya Planning for the next Clash of Wills - Support and Damage Dealer

With the monthly bulletin for June released we now have our first set of information to plan for the next CoW boss. And with this I want to share my thoughts on usable support and damage dealer units for the next Clash of Wills.
First, let's start with what we know about the CoW boss right now, and what we can prepare for.
The boss will use ice, wind, light and non-elemental physical and magic attacks. That does not tell us much about what kind of tank will be needed, which is the reason I will not go into the "best tank" discussion here. I assume that Abigail will perform nicely though, since physical attacks in general can be evaded or miraged. So you may only need to take care of incoming magic attacks. If older tanks will be viable, or if physical tanks will perform better is still unknown, and will most likely be known only once the next CoW will go live.
Next we learn that the boss will set up fields to boost damage of certain elements. If we can set up enough elemental resist on our team to immune those elements, the field will be inconsequential. Depending on which side the enemy field will occupy it may still be a concern that need to be dealt with. So if you use your own fields it may be a good idea to not use fields that can only be used once per battle.
The last bit is just a simple reminder that you want ailment resist for sleep and paralysis. For the most part this should not be a concern so long as it is not a preemptive amplying of said ailments with an ailment break right before it. In that case anyone who does not have Seraph Staff with the IW ability Healthy Composure, "Good luck. Hopefully Gumi provides an alternative".
And now for the stuff we can prepare for right now. We know that the CoW boss will be weak to light, ice and dark element, so damage dealers that use these elements will be useful. On top of that we know that the CoW boss is a human, demon and fairy triple race monster. So we need to prepare damage dealers that are easily geared for these races and support units that can provide us with the appropriate killers. This is what the next section is for: Giving you an idea of what support and damage dealer units are currently available for the next CoW. The next section will be a collection of different tables stating the unit itself and the reasoning as to why the unit may be used in the next CoW.
First let's get started with the support units. 4 different tables, 3 for each element and 1 for generally useful supports:
Light:
Unit Reasoning
Fina the Return Provides 400% stat and 300% LB buffs, 45% light amp with her SLB, a 30% light amp field with Bahamut equipped, can imbue your party with light element, provides a 125% killer buff to demon and human
White Dragon Ling Can provide light imbue for the party, give a 25% light amp and imperil light by 120%, can provide a 150% human killer buff. Needs her shift form for the aforementioned. Can also be used as a breaker.
Ice:
Unit Reasoning
Frostblade Fryevia Provides ice imbue, 45% ice amp, 135% ice imperil and a 25% ice amp field all in 1 skill. Can also function as your breaker in shift form.
Yoshikiri Provides ice imbue with a 120% ice imperil. Also gives a 45% ice amp and a 160% human killer. Needs EX3 for the ice amp and killer buff. With his IA equipped he can provide a ST 200% human killer buff.
Cheerful Caroler Ayaka Support consists of once-per-battle abilities. Can provide a 100% ice amp to the team and a 160% demon killer.
Bulwark & the Melodic Mascots Can provide ice imbue, a 120% imperil and a 30% amp. Also provides 150% killers to demon and fairy.
Dark:
Unit Reasoning
Blade of Vengeance Ibara Honorable mention since she is a damage dealer first and foremost. Provides a 135% dark imperil and 200% killers to human and demon.
Curse of Immunity Melissa Imbues dark, amps 45% dark damage, can amp 100% dark damage twice per battle, provides 150% human killer with 250% ST human killer once every turn. Does a lot of other useful support as well.
Dark Fina Warrior's Prayer Provides dark imbue, 45% dark amp on her SLB, 150% human and fairy killer, 160% demon killer for 5 turns and 250% demon killer for 1 turn at EX2, sets up a 30% dark amp field when equipped with Asura, provides 400% stat and 300% LB buff with her SLB.
Bulwark & the Melodic Mascots Can provide dark imbue, a 120% imperil and a 30% amp. Also provides 150% killers to demon and fairy.
Honorable support mentions:
Unit Reasoning
Fina -Dark Lineage- May not provide the needed elements, but can still provide a 160% demon killer and a 250% ST demon killer. Does other support like stat and LB buffs, and ailment resist buffs as well. Can be a support chainer as well without the need of extra equipment.
Tide Bringer Kaito Source of 90% breaks, 125% imperils, 25% weapon imperils. Can provide 200% demon and fairy killer.
Paladin Sylvie Elemental resist buffs, ailment resist buffs, mitigation buffs, break resist buffs, general stat and LB buffs, LB mod buffs, 150% demon killer with 250% ST demon killer.

Next are the damage dealers. Same as with the supports.
Light:
Unit Reasoning
2B 150% self amp, can provide 140% imperil, 150% human killer. Passively she has killers to demon (150%), human (300%) and fairy (150%). Passives assume that "Inherited Will" (A2s TMR) is equipped.
A2 150% self amp, can provide 140% imperil, 85% def break. Passively she has killers to demon, human and fairy (all 150%). Passives assume her own TMR to be equipped.
Shrine Maiden Tsukiko As an evoker does not need killers. Can imbue party with light element, amp light damage by 30%, imperil light by 120%. Set up a light imperil field (30%) once per battle. Has other support like imperil removal. Has light element evoke skills in shift form.
Starlight Elena Can provide 130% light imperil. Has passive killer to demon and human (200%). Needs to be EX2 for the passive killers. Can provide 150% demon and human killers. Needs to be EX3 for the killer buff. Old unit, may be used more as a support chainer.
Ice:
Unit Reasoning
Cheerful Caroler Ayaka On element with her strong element. 150% amp for 2 consecutive damage turns (once per battle). Support mentioned in support section. Has passive killers to demon, human and fairy (200%).
Lunar Festival Cleome Off element. Can imbue herself with ice element and amp damage by 45%. Only has passive killers for demon (200%).
Dark:
Unit Reasoning
Blade of Vengeance Ibara On element. Has a 150% amp, can imperil by 135%. Assuming her TMR and STMR are equipped on her and she is EX2+ she has passive killers for demon (300%), human (250%) and fairy (200%). Can provide 200% active for demon and human. Her base LB provides herself with 250% demon, human and fairy killer. Leader for a dark magic team.
Dark Knight Duane On secondary element. Can imbue himself with dark and amp his damage by 45%. Has passive killers for demon and fairy (200%). With low HP provides himself with a 160% killer against all races. Can provide a 450% stat and 350% LB buff once every 10 turns. Leader for CoW category units.
Elegant Temptress Lilith Has only a 60% amp for her main element (dark). Can imperil by 130%. Passive killers are for demon and human (150%). If a physical tank is more useful than a magic tank, she may be a good option on a dark team.
Lunar Festival Cleome Basically the same as what was already said about her in the "Ice" section, just with dark this time.
Olivera Innately dark element. Can provide a 135% dark imperil. Passive killers are, assuming his STMR equipped, demon (75%) and human (200%). Could still hit quite hard with the right support, maybe.
Honorable damage dealer mentions:
Unit Reasoning
Storm Seeker Esther I will always mention her so long as it is even remotely reasonable. With her own VC equipped she has passive killers for demon (250%), human and fairy (50%). Her main reason for being mentioned is her nearly on-demand LB field. She could alternatively also function as an omni-tank if the magic damage is not too high.
Wylk Depending on his STMR he has passive killers for demon (200% Axe, 300% Fist), human (300% Axe, 200% Fist) and fairy (100%). Provides a 90% def break.
Ruin Explorer Nora Despite her not being on element and having the wrong active killers for the upcoming CoW, she still has reasons to be used. She can provide an on-demand enemy side field to remove the enemys field. She innately has passive killers to demon, human and fairy (200%). Her SLB provides mod boosts to your teams LBs. She is a leader for CoW units. She is still a decent enough damage dealer with an external 100% amp.
Flaring Aether Rain Leader for FFBE units. Non-element BS chain scaling with morale. Passive killers for demon, human and fairy (200%). Great passive morale fill. Can provide a 350% stat and 300% lb buff in CoW.

This so far concludes my list. I intentionally did not mention the new Squall. In my opinion besides his boost to light category units, after turn 5 he is a dead slot on the team. And the only units that benefit from having Squall as a leader are A2 and 2B.
Anyway. Hopefully this helps some people in planning out their CoW teams.
At the current time I am personally leaning towards a dark team with BoV Ibara as the main damage dealer and CoI Melissa and Dark Fina WP as the core support. Rain or Nora for the spot of the leader with a slight favor for Nora if field removal is important, and the last 2 slots being for 2 of 4 units, Kaito, Abigail, 2B and A2.
submitted by KurogamiKazuya to FFBraveExvius [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 08:51 Background_Ad2224 What is the difference between the 100$ brook and the 25$ one?

25$ board
So I'm looking at a board for a new stick. I keep hearing good things about brook boards but I can't understand why I'd pay 100$ when their is a 25$ option. I'm assuming I am missing something but I'm not sure what so I figured I'd ask. I pretty much only play on PC. So can someone please enlighten me?
submitted by Background_Ad2224 to fightsticks [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 08:26 Informal-March7788 DC Friday

Some stuff we could do: - Go to an art museum (SAAM is next on my list) - Sketch/paint or people watch, I draw and would be happy to just hang out with another artist, or w someone who'd let me draw them - Walk around the tidal basin, great for conversation but it might be a bit hot - Find somewhere else to go, I've barely explored DC tbh - Get lunch and play cards/chess Budget is liiiiike $25?
I know a little about agriculture, science, art, and religion, I'm learning French & I enjoy helping others learn English, & I think I'm a pretty good listener. I love meeting people at random and getting to know them. M 18
submitted by Informal-March7788 to meetup [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 07:56 Mister-AI-007 It's OK

It's OK submitted by Mister-AI-007 to u/Mister-AI-007 [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 07:18 ArmyofSpies Cardano Rumor Rundown June 02, 2023

Hey Everyone!
Let’s go….
Newly Covered Today:
  1. Interesting news about the currency in one of Cardano’s biggest metaverse projects. https://twitter.com/Pavia_io/status/1664240389610704896
  2. Messari has released an article on operational decentralization in proof-of-stake crypto. https://messari.io/report/evaluating-validator-decentralization-geographic-and-infrastructure-distribution-in-proof-of-stake-networks
  3. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has MASSIVELY revised their figures on Q4 of 2022. No surprise, the numbers were much worse than they told us. https://twitter.com/FrogNews/status/1664253845399130113
  4. Looks like DAOs are getting a little hesitant about fee switches due to possible legal/tax implications. https://twitter.com/FrogNews/status/1664253845399130113
  5. We even have Arctic block production. https://twitter.com/Laponia_pool/status/1664226409466740737
  6. Questions are being raised regarding the blockspace consumption of dApps still on Plutus v1. https://twitter.com/matiwinnetou/status/1664385383122051073
Previously covered, but still interesting:
  1. IOG wants you to know about the advantages of native tokens on Cardano. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1654077799697727488
  2. Cardano Movies! https://twitter.com/coc_space/status/1653862307439542275
  3. We really need to primary some members of the U.S. Congress. https://twitter.com/BradSherman/status/1653928972026093569
  4. Wow! Not surprised at what’s being said here back in November. Just surprised it’s being said publicly. https://twitter.com/balajis/status/1654239504574853120
  5. Here’s the longer video of that FDIC meeting for context. http://fdic.windrosemedia.com/index.php?category=Systemic+Resolution+Advisory+Committee
  6. Looks like Western Alliance is up next. https://twitter.com/WatcherGuru/status/1654133106037739522
  7. The weekly development update from IOG is out. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1655248376194105347
  8. It’s not hard to make a meme coin on Cardano. https://twitter.com/nmkr_io/status/1654923697885532160
  9. Still a crazy amount of mark-to-market losses that haven’t been absorbed by the system. https://twitter.com/BillyM2k/status/1655207860572422144
  10. Warren Buffet gives a not too comforting answer to a question about the status of the dollar: “America…we’ve got everything going for us…but…you can’t print money indefinitely as debt.” https://twitter.com/GRDectestatus/1655203348033810439
  11. …and then everyone remembered what fee markets look like in busy times. https://twitter.com/CryptoStylesUSA/status/1654711146673479680
  12. …same for Bitcoin. https://twitter.com/MatthewPlomin/status/1655320093084057600
  13. Cardano hit 94% load. https://twitter.com/SebastienGllmt/status/1655624561789112321
  14. he MEV game is getting out of control over on Cardano’s biggest competitor chain. Convince me this shouldn’t just be called “theft” or “fraud”. https://twitter.com/0xNox_eth/status/1655615309695586306
  15. Cardano Native Assets are vastly superior to BRC20 and ERC20 tokens. https://twitter.com/TheOCcryptobro/status/1655673557710692352
  16. Rumor: SEC is going to make a move against Binance. Will the DOJ also? https://twitter.com/AP_Abacus/status/1655546961968103425
  17. At the end of Q3 of last year, 722 banks reported unrealized losses greater than 50% of capital. https://www.federalreserve.gov/supervisionreg/files/board-briefing-on-impact-of-rising-interest-rates-and-supervisory-approach-20230214.pdf
  18. Wyoming is inching closer to a state stablecoin. IOG’s significant presence there may turn out to be a huge advantage. https://cowboystatedaily.com/2023/05/09/wyoming-stable-token-a-multibillion-dollar-opportunity-as-officials-wrestle-with-how-to-make-it-happen/
  19. Paypal disclosed almost $1 billion in customer crypto in its latest 10-Q. https://blockworks.co/news/paypal-discloses-1b-crypto
  20. MiCA is shifting the balance of crypto investment to Europe. https://twitter.com/paddi_hansen/status/1655883224726241281
  21. Today (May 10) will be a joint hearing of the Agriculture and Financial Services Committees on Crypto. The CLO of Kraken will testify. https://financialservices.house.gov/
  22. This is a legit point about centralized L2s: the best ones are called Coinbase, Kraken, and Binance. https://twitter.com/el33th4xostatus/1655845787593502720
  23. There’s already a new version of Lace Wallet out. https://twitter.com/lace_io/status/1656347737355608066
  24. A nice thread on the many strengths of Cardano. https://twitter.com/TobiasIlskov/status/1656388178369212416
  25. Remember, lobster traps are a thing. https://twitter.com/TheCardanoTimes/status/1656064744225120257
  26. Today (May 11 at 1pm EST) there will be a Messari Cardano Analyst call with Charles & Frederik. https://twitter.com/StakeWithPride/status/1656272372452954112
  27. I think we all love it when they start making our case for us. https://twitter.com/WatcherGuru/status/1656379837823561730
  28. Ethereum is lamenting many of its poor design choices that Cardano already fixed. https://twitter.com/moo9000/status/1656215016016683008
  29. Drunkenmiller says this is the broadest asset bubble he’s ever even studied let alone seen firsthand and we’ve only had a few soft landings since 1950. https://twitter.com/Stephen_Geigestatus/1656416819312222219
  30. Live footage of meme coin investors accepting their ROI. https://twitter.com/KaylerSmithTV/status/1656130092966264834
  31. Here’s the Messari call from today with both Fred & Chaz. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouUhWwF74MM
  32. People really seem to be enjoying the CF’s Blockchain Education Alpha Program. https://twitter.com/andreassosilo/status/1644263843743293451
  33. The US Chamber of Commerce brief in the Coinbase case is calling out the SEC for acting “unlawfully”. https://twitter.com/MetaLawMan/status/1656737447756038177
  34. About that whole self-custody thing we’ve discussed… https://twitter.com/BitcoinMagazine/status/1656706653801136132
  35. The SPO poll on K and minFee starts today (May 15)! You should redelegate if your stake pool doesn’t vote the way you would vote! https://cardanofoundation.org/en/news/entering-voltaire-poll-experiment-live-on-mainnet/
  36. There are also a series of forum topics for discussion of the various options in the Cardano.org forums. https://twitter.com/Lovecoach_nic/status/1657700010148896770
  37. Coinbase spotlights Empowa! May be the first time they’ve ever given such a spotlight to a Cardano project. Tides are turning. https://twitter.com/coinbase/status/1657081243518005254
  38. Wow. Leaked “Key Messages” document for the joint committee meeting in the US House last week. Best part: they basically complain about separation of powers in point three. https://twitter.com/EleanorTerrett/status/1656362002577772544
  39. Dr. Vanishree Rao on ZK-Rollups. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1657778843854274560
  40. Here’s a new Decentralized Identity article from IOG. https://iohk.io/en/blog/posts/2023/05/11/atala-prism-pioneering-digital-identity-with-decentralized-solutions/
  41. There are reasons we’re in a hard capped cryptocurrency like Cardano. https://www.cnn.com/2023/05/15/business/argentina-interest-rates-inflation/index.html
  42. What is a dRep? This video is for you. There will be additional categories of default dReps that vote abstain or no confidence on every vote. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1658034085401337857
  43. The US Dept. of Justice is officially saying they are targeting exchanges. Great. Great. https://www.ft.com/content/5aac457e-cc80-44ae-ac40-9b51d9b601a3
  44. Wow! Ledger just made what is possibly the greatest PR blunder in the history of crypto. Trezor will be poppin’ bottles tonight. https://twitter.com/Ledgestatus/1658458714771169282
  45. People are claiming that the hysteria is a misunderstanding of cryptography. But, that’s not what’s going on here if Ledger plus one of the other two shard custodians can reconstruct your private key without having to use your private key. https://twitter.com/nimuepool/status/1658517533836574720
  46. The Ledger Recover FAQ seems to support this understanding as it suggests you use a brand new device for recovery. https://support.ledger.com/hc/en-us/articles/9579368109597
  47. Wow. Unfortunate timing for this. https://twitter.com/Ledgestatus/1658095051375800321
  48. Ken Kodama will be doing a Japanese language interview on CardanoSpot on May 18. https://twitter.com/Emurgo_Ken/status/1658838077136162828
  49. The stake pool operator poll on network parameters of K and minPoolCost is live. See the results here. The re-delegation phase will begin on May 25th. https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  50. Cornucopias dropped some new in-game footage. As expected, Solace is beautiful. https://youtu.be/j5iwNsQVMDQ?t=1846
  51. Wow….the Ledger shards are encrypted with “a master key that is contained in all devices”. Wut? https://twitter.com/P3b7_/status/1658809445965606913
  52. Sadly, the Ledger CEO seemed to be denying exactly the above just a day ago. https://twitter.com/_pgauthiestatus/1658508082941403144
  53. Here’s why 340 ADA minPoolCost promotes multi-pools. https://twitter.com/ArmySpies/status/1659387255537176581
  54. Numbers are emerging on the benefits of K=1000 over K=500. https://twitter.com/StakeWithPride/status/1659398551917727744
  55. Here’s the latest on the Stake Pool Operator poll. https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  56. Rep. Tom Emmer is trying to help crypto by cutting crypto assets out of the definition of a “security”. He creates a new non-security asset category called “investment contract asset”. https://twitter.com/GOPMajorityWhip/status/1659291641281146886
  57. Prof. Wadler (co-inventor of Cardano’s Plutus) has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society joining the likes of Einstein, Darwin, Hawking, and Isaac Newton. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLOm-dWje-M
  58. Huge amount of voting for economic self-interest by multi-poolers in the SPO poll. Earlier today (May 21), 84.73% by stake of the vote for K=500, Min Cost 340 ₳ was multi-poolers. Only 15.6% of the vote for K=1000, Min Cost 170 ₳ was multi-poolers. https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  59. Large pools also voted heavily for economic self-interest with the K parameter. 70.02% by stake of the vote for K=500, Min Cost 170 ₳ was pools with delegation over 35 million. Only 30.57% of the vote for K=1000, Min Cost 170 ₳ was pools over 35 million. https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  60. Apparently Cardano has its own wiki now! Probably better given our previous treatment by the big wiki group. https://twitter.com/StakeWithPride/status/1660383700243329024
  61. Rep. Tom Emmer is getting some reactions on the bill he sponsored with Rep. Soto. https://twitter.com/GOPMajorityWhip/status/1660329932495486977
  62. You’re really gonna hold up a debt ceiling deal because you hate crypto so bad? https://twitter.com/gaborgurbacs/status/1660248530135515138
  63. Looks like a few big multi-poolers have voted in the poll since yesterday. Pretty easy to predict what they didn’t vote for. https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  64. Reports coming in that DCG has defaulted on the payment owed to Genesis. https://twitter.com/AP_Abacus/status/1660671386388504577
  65. Ledger Recover would allow governments to confiscate crypto assets by subpoena? Called “not a real concern in the end.” Really? https://twitter.com/TheBTCTherapist/status/1660677064700178436
  66. Frederik Gregaard on DeFi and regulation. https://twitter.com/F_Gregaard/status/1660655806709211137
  67. Don’t Forget, the May Cardano 360 will be on May 25th. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1660621805017608194
  68. Here’s the daily check-in on the status of the SPO Poll. We have surpassed 590 pools voting (as of May 23). https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  69. The Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong has decided to get our hopes up with a proposed regulatory framework for crypto exchanges that could mean more trading for coins like Cardano. https://apps.sfc.hk/edistributionWeb/gateway/EN/news-and-announcements/news/doc?refNo=23PR53
  70. Here’s an IOG thread on the latest out of Atala Prism and Self-Sovereign Identity. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1660904360925188097
  71. Here’s an IOG article on Cardano native tokens. https://twitter.com/InputOutputHK/status/1660975383997448193
  72. The difference in decentralization between Cardano and Bitcoin is still…laughable. https://twitter.com/StakeWithPride/status/1660979639907500033
  73. Ledger is finally caving (a little) to the backlash. It’s reported that they will focus on open sourcing parts of their code and only release the “Recover” firmware after that open sourcing is finished. https://twitter.com/NFTherdestatus/1661026174779420672
  74. Looks like the Hong Kong announcement yesterday might have been a hint of what’s coming. https://twitter.com/cz_binance/status/1661391542504902664
  75. The Cardano Layerverse is coming to life. https://twitter.com/TobiasIlskov/status/1660697833115385856
  76. Wow! Incredible! Thank you for voting in favor of decentralization, 1PCT! https://twitter.com/StakeWithPride/status/1661460222203002880
  77. Federal Reserve report debunks claim that crypto is not useful to people in the US. https://twitter.com/SebVentures/status/1661063483369177108
  78. The SPO phase of the poll is over. Nearly 800 pools voted. Now it’s your turn to see how your pool voted and re-delegate if you think they voted against decentralization and for their own pocketbook. https://adastat.net/polls/96861fe7da8d45ba5db95071ed3889ed1412929f33610636c072a4b5ab550211
  79. The May Cardano 360 is out! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_bCa_xCoxA
  80. Charles dropped an update today. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfL2U2hAGWw
  81. Sen. Cynthia Lummis declares her opposition to the 30% tax on bitcoin mining. https://twitter.com/SenLummis/status/1661803569341759495
  82. Lots of volume being transacted on Cardano recently! https://twitter.com/cwpaulm/status/1662929296329981952
  83. Recent subpoenas to the Python Package Index don’t bode well for those hoping to store seed phrases with third-party custodians. https://twitter.com/_jonasschnelli_/status/1662531840606093312
  84. Transaction volume is looking very interesting right now. https://messari.io/charts/cardano/txn-vol
  85. JPG Store has now launched Android and IOS apps. https://twitter.com/jpgstoreNFT/status/1663281982262919170
  86. It’s true. Cardano is straight killing it on the security leg of the trilemma.https://twitter.com/cardano_whale/status/1662987243655684096
  87. Just checked. Yep. The centralization in ETH is still staggering. https://twitter.com/StakeWithPride/status/1663222056870350848
  88. There’s a documentary about a 2022 Plutus hackathon in Argentina. https://twitter.com/LarsBrunjes/status/1663111319732535297
  89. Pavia is testing NFT gating. This could get very interesting. https://twitter.com/Pavia_io/status/1663153213988823040
  90. Marlowe is on mainnet! You can now code Cardano smart contracts in javascript or blockly via Marlowe! This is an amazing leap forward. https://twitter.com/marlowe_io/status/1663480828016435200
  91. Don’t forget! We are still in the re-delegation phase of the CF Poll. See how your stake pool voted! If they were voting for their pocketbook instead of decentralization, you should re-delegate! https://twitter.com/Cardano_CF/status/1663564854572244994
  92. Wow! Cardano projects are doing big things these days! https://twitter.com/CardanoCrocClub/status/1663468916843114498
  93. The CCP has dropped a white paper on how it will develop Web 3 including NFTs and the metaverse. https://twitter.com/milestones_nft/status/1663458500922712064
  94. Lace is now open source! https://twitter.com/IOHK_Charles/status/1663953642045714433
  95. Binance is back and apparently they don’t care if someone had that ticker first. https://twitter.com/pool_pm/status/1663809731603906560
  96. Summon is now allowing for multichain swaps of ADA & ERG. https://twitter.com/N8iveToEarth/status/1664038846563225600
  97. Charles did a Twitter Space with World Mobile. https://twitter.com/IOHK_Charles/status/1663984094252810283
  98. Here’s an easy infographic on CIP-1694 Voltaire governance from IOG. https://twitter.com/Hornan7/status/1664007623799185409
  99. Apparently, Cardano sushi is a thing! https://twitter.com/Allison_Fromm/status/1663841386074976257
  100. This kind of sums up the problems with central bank behavior over the last 20 years. https://twitter.com/JeffWenigestatus/1664012650781585409
~Army of Spies
submitted by ArmyofSpies to cardano [link] [comments]


2023.06.02 06:56 Peaches_offtrail Long-term solar review: it's finally better than large power banks in the American West

tl;dr: I've spent over 2,000 miles and almost a decade looking at optimizing solar setups for backpacking. The recent Nitecore 5000 mAh battery release has finally pushed solar ahead of using larger power banks in the American West.
Background
I first started using solar in 2014 on a thru-hike of the Colorado Trail. I had a 4,000 mAh power bank built into a plastic case with solar that weighed a whopping 13 oz. It seemed to work well enough for me then, but keep in mind Guthooks didn't exist and I was still using paper maps.
Before hiking the PCT in 2018, I spent several months and dozens of hours optimizing my phone and battery setup. This allowed me to entirely avoid larger power banks, and I moved to an optimized, for-purpose 3.4 oz battery solution. I still have not been able to beat this setup for power, which I used for 8,000-ish miles of hiking. My phone has since changed (now on a Samsung Galaxy S20 FE that I hate), making that optimized setup impossible. After changing phones, I moved over to an NB10000 and have around 5,000 miles worth of backpacking with that.
In 2020, due to COVID, I decided to re-hike the Colorado trail. I opted for using solar to avoid the amount of time I would need to spend in town, where I would potentially expose myself or others to COVID. After doing dozens of hours of research and testing, I ended up settling on the "10W" Lixada panel (~3.6 oz), and a RAVPower 3500 mAh battery (~2.5 oz). I was amazed by how amazingly this setup worked. I was running a Moto Z4, and I had more power than I knew how to use. I loved never needing to spend time in town charging, and I could listen to audio books all day and film endless video if I felt compelled. It was crazily liberating compared to the NB10000 or Moto PowerPack I had been using previously.
I loved that setup so much, that I tried to use the same setup on the CDT. I made it a few hundred miles before the RAVPower's micro-usb port catastrophically failed, and I had to overnight a power bank to my next resupply.
Before I move to the new setup I've optimized, let's talk solar pros and cons:
Traditional Solar Setup Pros and Cons
What's Good About Solar What's Bad About Solar
If you're in the American west, you can typically get more energy than you'll be able to use If you hit several days of significant cloud coverage, you may need to modify usage patterns
You don't need to spend time in towns waiting for batteries to recharge Setup can be heavier than some power bank configurations (shorter trips)
You don't need to be very conservative with battery use between resupplies Solar setups are more finicky than power banks
Durability may not be adequate for the use-case
I've tried to make solar work for me over a couple thousand miles. The single biggest issue I've had when using solar has taken the form of numerous durability issues and various strain failure points.
When running solar, you attach the setup to the outside of your pack. It's a little finicky to get it on there (definitely easier to stow a power bank inside your pack). More importantly, it means the solar setup is directly exposed to the elements, and will literally take a beating. Every time you get something from inside your pack, you'll need to remove the solar setup from the top. When you do that, it ends up casually hanging out on the ground (you could baby it more, but omg.) Things break on the ground. Every time you unplug or plug your power bank in, you add stress on the power bank socket. The stress of connection points and jostling can wreak havoc on delicate USB sockets.
Given these experiences, I've done a lot of work optimizing the weight and setup configuration to actually address the durability concern. u/liveslight has a great video of various setups, but the durability concern is not given adequate attention. It's not as large of a concern for shorter hikes.
My Optimized Setup
Photos can be found here
Total: ~7.2 oz (can be lowered/raised a bit with different Lixada tolerances, USB-C cables/adapters, and shock cord/locks)
There is allegedly a 18650 (NL1835RX) USB-C cell that Nitecore has. I can't find it for purchase except on Alibaba/questionable sites. I estimate this cell, if it really exists, weighs around 1.82 oz, reducing the total weight to 6.37 oz, significantly beating the competition.
The competition:
Total: ~7.1 oz
(Note*: I actually end up using a much longer cord with the NB10000 setup, weighing around 1.5 oz, so that I can use my phone while I charge it in towns. This is an additional 1.15 oz hit over the cord I otherwise feel comfortable using with the solar setup alone. I have not included this larger cord in the 7.1 oz weight listed above*)
Feature Discussion and "hacks"
The Lixada panel*:* it is a very durable, reliable panel. It does not put out power at 10 watts, but you can anticipate reliable wattage in the 2-4 watt range in the American West. The Nitcore 5000 mAh power bank is an 18 Wh cell, which means it will take about 5-9 hours to fully charge the power bank using the solar panel. That means that after one day of hiking in the American west you will typically have significantly more power available for your needs than if you running the NB10000 (one 5000 mAh cycle + 1 charge).
There is some variability in the Lixada panels due to shipments coming from different manufacturers in China. I recently bought a new one from Aliexpress that ended up being slightly heavier than my old panel (3.75 oz vs 3.54 oz). After cutting off the handle with a skillsaw, it came to 3.6-ish oz. I have another panel coming from a different Aliexpress shipper that I expect to be around 3.4 oz (less plastic), further reducing the setup's weight compared to NB10000.
The Nitecore NL2150RX: This is the new piece of kit that really brings everything together. You no longer need a 21700/18650 cell charger, and the NL-RX "power bank" is close to the most minimalist "power bank" you can find, being little more than a cell. Because it's now running USB-C, you no longer will need to unplug/re-plug the USB-C cable into the battery to charge your phone. You can just unplug the USB-C cable from the panel, and plug it directly into your phone (why I've used a slightly longer USB-C cable).
Shock Cord and Locks: I purchased 2.5 mm shock cord and barrel locks from ropeandcord.com -- this is just about the smallest gauge cord that will reliably hold the battery in place, and keep the panel pretty stable on your pack without needing to worry about things.
USB-C Cable and angle adapters: This is key. You need to reduce strain points for the solar panel setup to reduce failure risks. To reduce strain at the USB-C socket on the NL2150RX, I got a right-angle adapter. This adapter enhances durability substantially, as there will be no plug sticking out orthogonally to the body of the battery. It can now lay flat, and there is a much smaller lever arm (torque is reduced) at the USB-C socket.
Similarly, I got a 180-degree, U adapter that goes from USB-A to USB-C. I think a better adapter can be found compared to the ones I bought.
Other odds and ends: You'll notice in the pictures that there is some blue CCF on the back of the Lixada panel. When you mount the battery on the back of the panel, it is exposed to sunlight. The panel shades it fairly well, but the heat will transfer through the panel, increasing the likelihood that battery overheating mechanisms will kick-in, disabling charging. I've added CCF to insulate the battery from the solar panel. It seems to be working.
Using the cut-off handle from the panel, I cut a few pieces of the remaining plastic and superglued these pieces to the back of the panel at the height that the USB-C cable comes off of the U-bend. This will decrease the lever arm acting on the adapter port, reducing the strain and possible failure of the USB-C port. Similarly, I added a sliver to the USB-C 90-degree adapter I have on the NL2150RX battery. This also acts to reduce the lever arm, further decreasing the risk of damage from impact.
Additionally, I folded over about an inch of yellow electric tape and wedged it into the USB-A plug on the panel, between the white plastic housing and the metal USB-A adapter. The panels have poor tolerance in manufacturing, and it seems the USB-A plug can have a tendency to jostle loose, disconnecting and reconnecting the battery. Tightening the fit seems to have fixed this issue. I also carry electric tape with me in my kit, typically to tape blisters.
Other Power Optimizations
I think there is significantly more optimization that can and should occur with phone setups. My current Samsung Galaxy S20 FE is an abysmal piece of shit. I got it because it supposedly had "legendary" battery life, but it seems to burn through battery much more quickly than any of the Motorola Phones I've had (a lot). With that said, it seems to have similar battery drain compared to many others' phones (25%-35% a day with reasonable usage in Airplane mode with extended power saving enabled, I need to charge it every night in default life, typically it's at 15% by midnight).
With that said, I brought only the NL2150RX on a recent 3 day backpacking trip. My phone was at 25% when I started (car charging cable disconnected) and I ended up getting back to the car with only 15% battery life remaining and a drained 5000 mAh cell (didn't take the solar panel). This is absolutely abysmal, and I will be looking at better phones for backpacking purposes this fall.
Concluding Thoughts
A Lixada solar panel along with the NL2150RX or NL1835RX offers significant improvement over an NB10000 power bank + Anker Nano 511 charger for approximately the same or better weight. Improvements from using this solar setup include:
  1. significantly more power capacity when hiking in the American West, and
  2. less time spent needing to wait for things to charge in town (e.g. 4 hours for the NB10000 to recharge).
I have made some optimizations and refinements to this solar setup to substantially improve the durability to a point where I think it can be reliably trusted for long-distance backpacking and multi-month thru-hikes.
With that said, I do not yet have enough miles with this new setup to personally feel confident that I should forego throwing an Anker Nano 511 into my backpacking kit. While I believe I have significantly improved the durability to a point where I do not anticipate components being damaged over thousands of miles, I also don't mind the 1.4 oz hit an Anker Nano 511 costs me for buying a lot of peace-of-mind. After I accrue another 1000+ miles of use with this setup, I will probably abandon the Anker Nano.
Quick aside on Anker Nanos: There are several different Anker Nano models:
The Anker Nano 511 features folding plug connectors. The Anker 711 has fixed plug connectors. I have now damaged some of my gear with the 711 because the plug connectors do not fold. I have decided that the 0.25 oz hit for using the 511 is worth it for the reduced risk of damaging gear that I pack alongside it.
submitted by Peaches_offtrail to Ultralight [link] [comments]